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AY 3040 The Formation of Early States in the Near East (4,000-2,000BC)




Amongst the more useful journals that are worth looking through are:
Journal of Near Eastern Studies (NB filed under A)#
Journal of the American Oriental Society#
Journal of Cuneiform Studies#
Acta Sumerologica#
Archiv für Orientforschung
Bibliotheca Orientalis#
Zeitschrift für Assyriologie#
# These are filed as Near Eastern Studies periodicals

General Publications

Cambridge Ancient History. 1970, 3rd revised edition Cambridge University Press.
Adams, R. McC., 1966. The Evolution of Urban Society: early Mesopotamia and pre-Hispanic Mexico. Chicago.
Aurenche, O.; Evin, J., and Hours, F., 1987, Editors. Chronologies du Proche Orient: Chronologies of the Near East. Oxford. BAR International Series 379.
*Black, J. and Green, A, 1992, Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia. London: British Museum Press.
*Bottéro, J., 1992, Mesopotamia : writing, reasoning and the gods. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Bottero, J.; Cassin, E., and Vercoutter, J., 1967. The Near East: the early civilizations. London.
Braidwood, R. J. and Willey, G, 1962, ed. Courses toward Urban Life. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Burney, C. A., 1977. From Village to Empire. Oxford.
Carter, E. & Stopler M. W., 1984. Elam: Surveys of Political History and Archaeology. University of California Press.
Childe, V. G., 1950. ëThe urban revolution.í, Town Planning Review  21: 3-17. Reprinted in Sabloff & Lamberg-Karlo.
Childe, V. G., 1952. New Light on the Most Ancient East. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.
*Crawford, H., 1991. Sumer and the Sumerians.
Dalley, S. M., 1984. Mari and Karana: Two Old Babylonian cities. London.
*Dalley, S., 1991. Myths from Mesopotamia. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Davis, K., 1973, Editor. Cities: their origin, growth and human impact. San Francisco: Freeman (Readings from Scientific American.
Diakonoff, I. M., Editor. 1969, Ancient Mesopotamia: A Socio-Economic History. Moscow: Nauka.
Ehrich, R. W., 1965, Chronologies in Old World Archaeology.
Finkbeiner, U. and Rollig, W. eds., 1986, Jamdet Nasr: Period or Regional Style, Beiheft zum Tubinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients B62..
Forest, J. D., 1999, Les Premiers Temples de Mésopotamie. Oxford: BAR (International Series 65.
Forest, J.-D., 1996. Mesopotamie: LíApparition de líEtat.
Frankfort H.; Frankfort, H. A.; Wilson, J. A., and Jacobsen, T., 1946. The Intellectual Adventure of Ancient Man. New York. (= Before Philosophy).
Frankfort, H., 1948. Kingship and the Gods. Chicago.
Fried, M. H., 1960. On the evolution of social stratification and the state.
Fried, M. H., 1967. The Evolution of Political Society. Random House, New York.
Friedman, J. and Rowlands, M. J., 1978. The Evolution of Social Systems. London.
Garelli, P., 1974. Le Palais et la Royauté: archéologie et civilization. Paris.
Gledhill, J.; Bender, B., and Larsen, M. T., 1988. State and Society. London: Routledge.
Hallo, W. W. and Simpson, W. K., 1971. The Ancient Near East; a history. New York.
Jacobsen, T., 1970. Towards the Image of Tammuz. (ed. W. L. Moran) Cambridge, Mass.
Jacobsen, T., 1976. The Treasures of Darkness: a history of Mesopotamian religion. Yale Univ Press.
Knapp, A. B., 1988. The History and Culture of Ancient Western Asia and Egypt. Dorsey, Chicago.
Kramer, S. N., 1963. The Sumerians. Chicago.
Kuhrt, A., 1995. The Ancient Near East, c.3000-330 BC. London: Routledge.
Kuklick, B., 1996, Puritans in Babylon: the Ancient Near East and American Intellectual Life, 1880-1930. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Levine, L. D. & Young T. C. Eds., 1977. Mountains and Lowlands. (= Bibliotheca Mesopotamica 7) Los Angeles.
Liverani, M., 1993, Akkad: the First World Empire. Padua: Sargon.
Lloyd, S, 1980. Foundations in the Dust. London: rev enlarged illus ed.
Lloyd, S., 1978. The Archaeology of Mesopotamia.
Lupton, A., 1996, Stability and Change: Socio-Political Development in North Mesopotamia, BAR International Series 627. BAR.
Maisels, C. K., 1989. The Emergence of Civilisation, from Hunting and Gathering to Agriculture, Cities and the State in the Near East. London & New York: Routledge.
Maisels, C. K., 1993. The Near East: Archaeology in the ëCradle of Civilisationí. London: Routledge.
Manzanilla, L. Ed, 1987. Studies in the Neolithic and Urban Revolutions; The V. Gordon Childe Colloquium, Mexico, 1986. BAR International Series 349, Oxford.
Manzanilla, L., 1996. Emergence and Change in Early Urban Societies. Plenum Press.
*Mieroop, M. van de, 1999, Cuneiform Texts and the Writing of History. London: Routledge.
Mieroop, M. van de, 1999, The ancient Mesopotamian city. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Moorey, P. R. S., 1979, Editor. Origins of Civilization. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Moorey, P. R. S., 1985, Materials and Manufacture in Ancient Mesopotamia: The evidence of Archaeology and Architecture. Oxford: BAR(BAR International Series ; v. 237).
Moorey, P. R. S., 1994, Ancient Mesopotamian Materials and Industries: the Archaeological Evidence. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
*Nemet-Nejat, K. R., 1998, Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Westport, Cennecticut: Greenwood Press
*Nissen, H. J., 1988. The Early History of the Ancient Near East 9000 - 2000 BC. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Oppenheim, A. L., 1964. Ancient Mesopotamia, portrait of a dead civilization. Chicago.
Parrot, A., 1963. Sumer. London.
Pollock, S., 1992. ëBureaucrats and Managers, Peasants and Pastoralists, Imperialists and Traders: Research on the Uruk and Jemdet Nasr Periods in Mesopotamiaí, Journal of World Prehistory  6: 297-336.
*Pollock, S., 1999, Ancient Mesopotamia: The Eden that Never Was. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
*Postgate, J. H., 1992. Early Mesopotamia: Society and Economy at the Dawn of History. London: Routledge.
Postgate, J. N., 1977. The First Empires. Oxford.
Potts, D. T., 1997, Mesopotamian Civilization: The Material Foundations. London: Athlone Press
Roaf, M., 1990. Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East. Oxford: Equinox.
*Roux, G., 1964. Ancient Iraq. Harmondsworth, London.
Sabloff, J. and Lamberg-Karlovsky, C. C., 1974, Editors. The Rise and Fall of Civilizations: selected readings. Cummings, Menlo Park, Calif.
Service, E., 1962. Primitive social organization: an evolutionary perspective. New York.
Silver, M., 1985. Economic Structures of the Ancient Near East. Beckenham: Croon Helm.
Weiss, H. ed, 1986. The Origins of Cities in Dry-Farming Syria and Mesopotamia in the Third-Millennium BC. Connecticut: Four Quarters Publishing.
Wright, H. T., 1984. Prestate Political Formations. Sanders, W. Wright H. T. & Adams R. Mc. Malibu: Undena Press.

Specific Syntheses

Algaze, G., 1989. ëThe Uruk expansion: cross-cultural exchange in early Mesopotamian civilizationí, Current Anthropology 30: 571-608.
Algaze, G., 1993. The Uruk World System. The Dynamics of Expansion of Early Mesopotamian Civilization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Beale, T. W., 1978. ëBevelled Rim Bowls and their implications for change and economic organization in the later fourth millenniumí, JNES 37.
Bermant, C. and Weitzman, M., 1978. Ebla : Archaeological Enigma. London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson.
Brinkman, J., 1984, ëSettlement survey and documentary evidence: regional variation and secular trend in Mesopotamian demographyí, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 43: 169-180.
Buccellati, G., 1990, ëSalt at the dawn of history: the case of the bevelled-rim bowlsí, Matthiae, P.; van Loon, M., and Weiss, H., Editors. Resurrecting the Past: a Joint Tribute to Adnan Bounni. Leiden: Nederlands Instituut vor het Nabije Oosten; pp. 17-40.
Charles, M., 1988, ëIrrigation in lowland Mesopotamiaí.  Irrigation and Cultivation in Mesopotamia. Cambridge; pp. 1-39.
Crawford, H. E. W., 1973. ëMesopotamiaís invisible exports in the third millenniumí, World Archaeology 5: 232-241.
Crawford H., 1998, Dilmun and its Gulf neighbours. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dercksen, J. G., 1999, Trade and finance in ancient Mesopotamia. Leiden: Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten
During Caspers, E. C. L., 1979. ëSumer, coastal Arabia and the Indus Valley in the Proto-literate and Early Dynastic eras.íí, J of Econ and Soc Hist of the Orient  22, 2 (1979): 121-35.
Edens, C., 1992, ëDynamics of trade in the ancient Mesopotamian ìworld systemîë, American Anthropologist 94: 118-139.
Ellis, M.-D., 1983, ëCorrelation of archaeological and written evidence for the study of Mesopotamian institutions and chronologyí, American Journal of Archaeology 87: 497-507.
Emberling, G., 1997. ëEthnicity in complex societies: archaeological perspectivesí, Journal of Archaeological Research 5(4): 295-344.
Falconer, S. E. and Savage, S. H., 1995. ëHeartlands and Hinterlands: alternative trajectories of early urbanization in Mesopotamia and the south Levantí, American Antiquity  60/1.
Flannery, K. V., 1972. ëThe cultural evolution of civilisationsí, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics  3: 399-426.
Gibson, McGuire and Biggs, R. D., 1991. The Organization of Power. Aspects of Bureaucracy in the Ancient Near East. 2nd ed.  Chicago: Oriental Institute.
Helbaek, H., 1960. ëEcological effect of irrigation in Ancient Mesopotamiaí, Iraq  42: 186-196.
Henrickson, E., 1981, ëNon-religious settlement patterning in the late Early Dynastic of the Diyala regioní, Mesopotamia 16: 43-140.
Henrickson, E., 1982, ëFunctional analysis of elite residences in the late Early Dynastic of the Diyala regioní, Mesopotamia  17: 5-33.
Joffe, Alexander H., 1998, ëAlcohol and social complexity in Ancient Western Asiaí, Current Anthropology 39(1): 297-322.
Katz, S. H. and Maytag, F., 1991, ëBrewing an ancient beerí, Archaeology 44(July/August): 24-33.
Kohl, P. L., 1978. ëThe balance of trade in southwestern Asia in the mid-third millenniumí, Current Anthropology 19.
Lamberg-Karlovsky, C. C., 1972. ëTrade mechanisms in Indus-Mesopotamian interrealationsí, Journal of the American Oriental Society 92(2): 222-230.
Mallowan, M. E. L., 1965. ëNoahís Flood Reconsidered.í,  Iraq  27 (1965):62-82.
Matthiae, P., 1977. ëTell Mardikh: the archives and palace.í, Archaeology  30 (1977):244-53.
Matthiae, P., 1980. Ebla: an Empire Rediscovered. English edition of Italian 1977 publication.
McCorriston, Joy, 1997. ëThe fiber revolution. Textile extensification, alienation, and social stratification in ancient Mesopotamiaí, Current Anthropology 38(4): 517-549.
Millard, A., 1988. ëThe bevelled rim bowls: their purpose and significanceí, Iraq 50: 49-57.
Moorey, P. R. S., 1977. ëWhat do we know about the people buried in the Royal Cemetery?í, Expedition 20: 24-40.
Pollock, S., 1991, ëOf priest, princes, and poor relations: the dead in the Royal Cemetery of Urí, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 1: 171-189.
Potts, D., 1983. Dilmun: new studies in the archaeology and early history of Bahrain. Berlin: D. Reiner Verlag.
Potts, T. F., 1993, ëPatterns of trade in third-millennium BC Mesopotamia and Iraní, World Archaeology 24: 379-402.
Potts, Timothy, 1994, Mesopotamia and the East: An Archaeological and Historical Study of Foreign Relations 3400-2000BC. Oxford: Oxford University Committee for Archaeology
Raikes, R. L., 1966. ëThe Physical Evidence for Noahís Flood.í, Iraq  28 (1966):52-63.
Rowton, M. B., 1973. ëUrban autonomy in a nomadic environmentí, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 32: 201-215.
Sabloff, J. A. and Lamberg-Karlovsky, C. C., 1975. Ancient Civilisation and Trade. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Schwartz, G. M. and Falconer, S. E., 1994. Archaeological Views from the Countryside. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Speiser, E. A., 1930, Mesopotamian Origins.
Stein, G., 1999, Rethinking World-Systems: Diaspora, Colonies, and Interaction in Uruk Mesopotamia. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Stone, E., 1987. Nippur Neighbourhoods. Chicago: Oriental Institute.
Tainter, 1987. The Collapse of Complex Societies.
Weiss, H. et al., 1993. ëThe genesis and collapse of third millennium North Mesopotamian civilisationí, Science 261: 995-1004.
Weiss, H., 1978. ëEarly Irrigation Agricultureí, Science  200: 1377-1378.
Woolley, C. L. & Moorey P. R. S., 1982. Ur of the Chaldees. London: Herbert Press.
Wright, H. T. & Johnson G. A., 1975. ëPopulation, exchange, and early state formation in southwestern Iraní, American Antiquity 77: 267-289.
Wright, H. T. & Johnson G. A., 1985. ëRegional prespectives on southwestern Iranian state developmentí, Paléorient 11: 25-30.
Wright, H. T. and Pollock, S., 1987, ëRegional Socio-Economic Organization in Southern Mesopotamia: the Middle and later 4th Millenium B.C.í, Huot, J.-L., editor. Préhistoire de la Mésopotamie. Paris: Centre de la Recherche Scientific; pp. 317-329.
Wright, H. T.; Miller, N., and Redding, R., 1980, ëTime and precess in an Uruk rural centerí, Barrelet, M.-T., Editor. LíArchéologie de líIraq du Début de líEpoque Néolithique à 333 avant notre Ere. Paris: CNRS; pp. 265-284.
Wright, Rita, 1996, ëTechnology, gender, and class: worlds of difference in Ur III Mesopotamiaí, Wright, Rita, Editor. Gender and Archaeology. Philidelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press; pp. 79-110.
Yoffee, N., 1996. ëThe decline and rise of Mesopotamian Civilisation: an ethnoarchaeological perspective on the evolution of social complexityí, American Antiquity 1979: 5-35.
Yoffee, Norman and Cowgil, George L., 1988. The Collapse of Ancient States and Civilisations. Arizona: Arizona University Press.
Zagarell, A., 1986, ëTrade, women, class, and society in ancient Western Asiaí, Current Anthropology 27: 415-430.
Zeder, Melinda, 1991. Feeding Cities. Specialized Animal Economy in the Ancient Middle East. Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington.
Zettler, R., 1992. The Ur III Temple of Inanna at Nipper. Reimer.
Zettler, Richard L., 1996, ëGordon Childe and the socioeconomic position of craft specialists in Early Mesopotamiaí, Waites, B., Editor. Craft Specialization and Social Evolution: In Memory of V. Gordon Childe. Philadephia: University Museum; pp. 17-23.

Archaeological Data

Adams, R. McC. and Nissen, H. J., 1972. The Uruk Countryside: The Natural Setting of Urban Societies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Adams, R. McC., 1965. Land Behind Baghdad: A History of Settlement on the Diyala Plain. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Adams, R. McC., 1981. Heartland of Cities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Badler, Virginia Renke; McGovern, Patrick E., and Glusker, Donald L., 1996. ëChemical evidenmce for a wine residue from Warka (Uruk) inside a Late Uruk spouted jarí, Baghdader Mitteilungen 27: 39-43.
Crawford, H.; Killick, R., and Moon, J., 1997, The Dilmun Temple at Saar:Bahrain and its archaeological inheritance. London: Kegan Paul
Crawford, Harriet, 1997. ëThe site of Saar: Dilmun reconsideredí, Antiquity 71: 701-708.
Curtis, J., 1986, ëA basalt sculpture found at Warkaí, Baghdader Mitteilungen 17: 131-134.
Delougaz, P. and Lloyd, S. Pre-Sargonid Temples in the Diyala Region. Chicago: Chicago University Press(Oriental Institute Publications 58.
Forest, J.-D., 1983a. Les Pratiques Funeraires en Mesopotamie du Cinquieme Millenaire au Debut du Troisieme. Paris: Editions Recherche sur Civilisations.
Frangipane, M., 1997. ëA 4th millennium temple/palace complex at Arslantepe-Malatya. North-south relations and the formation of early state societies in the northern regions of Greater Mesopotamiaí, Paléorient 23(1): 45-73.
Gibson, McGuire and McMahon, Augusta, 1995. ëInvestigation of the Early Dynastic-Akkadian transition: report of the 18th and 19th season of excavation in Area WFí, Iraq 57: 1-39.
Gibson, McGuire and McMahon, Augusta, 1997. ëThe Early Dynastic-Akkadian transition Part 2. The authors responseí, Iraq 59: 9-14.
Hole, F., 1987, Editor. Archaeological Perspectives on Western Iran. Washington: The Smithsonian Institution Press.
Johnson, G. A., 1973. Local Exchange and Early State Development in Southwestern Iran. University of Michigan, Anthropological Papers 51, Ann Arbor.
Johnson, G. A., 1980, ëSpatial organization of Early Uruk settlement systemsí, Barrelet, M.-T., Editor. LíArchéologie de líIraq du Début de líEpoque Néolithique à 333 avant notre Ere. Paris: CNRS; pp. 233-264.
Kerr, R. A., 1998, ëSea-floor dust shows drought felled Akkadian Empireí, Science 279(Jan 16): 325--326.
Killeck, R., Editor. 1985, Tell Rubeidheh: an Uruk Village in the Jebel Hamrin. Warminster: Aries & Phillips.
Lamberg-Karlovsky, C. C. and Beale, T. W., 1986, (Eds). ëExcavations at Tepe Yahya - The Early Periods Peabody Museum of Achaeology & Ethnology, Cambridge Massí, American School of Prehistoric Research Bulletin  38.
Lamberg-Karlovsky, C. C., 1971. An early city in Iran. Reprinted in Lamberg-Karlovsky (ed.), Hunters, Farmers & Civs.
Martin, H., 1982. ëThe Early Dynastic Cemetery at Al-íUbaidí, Iraq 44: 145-185.
Matthews, R., 1992, ëDefining the style of the period: Jemdet Nasrí, Iraq 54: 1-34.
Matthews, R., 1992. ëJemdet Nasr: the site and the periodí, Biblical Archaeologist 55(4): 196-205.
Moorey, P. R. S., 1970. ëCemetry A at Kish: grave groups and chronologyí, Iraq 32: 86-128.
Moorey, P. R. S., 1978. Kish Excavations 1923-1933.
Pollock, S., 1985. ëChronology of the Royal Cemetery of Urí, Iraq 47: 129-158.
Pollock, S.; Pope, M., and Coursey, C., 1996. ëHousehold Production at the Uruk Mound, Abu Salabikh, Iraqí, American Journal of Archaeology 100: 683-698.
Postgate, J. N., 1994, ëHow many Sumerians per hectare - probing the anatomy of and early cityí, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 4: 47-65.
Stein, G & Misir A., 1994. ëMesopotamian-Anatolian Interaction at Hacinebi, Turkey: preliminary report on the 1992 excavationsí, Anatolica 20: 145-189.
Stein, G. et al, 1996. ëHacinebi, Turkey: Preliminary report on the 1995 excavationsí, Anatolica 22: 85-128.
Stein, G. J.; Bernbeck, R.; Coursey, C.; McMahon, A.; Miller, N. F.; Misir, A.; Nicola, J.; Pittman, H., and Pollock, S., 1996, ëUruk Colonies and Anatolian communities: An interim report on the 1992-1993 excavations at Hacinebi, Turkeyí, American Journal of Archaeology  100: 205-260.
Strommenger, E., 1980. ëThe chronological division of the archaic levels of Uruk-Warkaí, American Journal of Archaeology 84.
Weiss, H., 1983. ëExcavations at Tell Leilan and the origins of North Mesopotamian cities in the third millennium BCí, Paléorient  9/2: 39-52.
Wilkinson, T. J. and Tucker D. J., 1995. Settlement Development in the North Jazira, Iraq: A Study of an Archaeological Landscape. London: BSAI, Aris and Phillips, London.
Wilkinson, T. J., 1990. ëThe development of settlement in the north Jezira between the 7th and the 1st millennia BCí, Iraq 52: 49-62.
Woolley, C. L., 1934. Ur Excavations, Volume II: The Royal Cemetery. London: 2 vols.

Textual Material

Cooper, J. S., 1983, The Curse of Agade. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
Cooper, J. S., 1986. Presargonic Inscriptions. New Haven: American Oriental Society.
Cooper, J., 1993, ëParadigm and propaganda: the dynasty of Akkade in the 21st centuryí, Liverani, M., Editor. Akkad: the First World Empire. Padua: Sargon; pp. 11-23.
Cuneiform Archives and Libraries. Leiden: Nederlands Historisch-Archaeolog.
Englund, R. K., 1991, ëHard work - where will it get you? Labor management in Ur IIIí, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 50: 255-280.
Evers, J. D., 1995, Myth and Narrative: Structure and Meaning in some Ancient Near Eastern Texts. Kevelaer: Butzon & Bercker
Foster, B. R., 1977. ëCommercial activity in Sargonic Mesopotamiaí, Iraq  39: 31-44.
Foster, B. R., 1981. ëA new look at the Sumerian temple-stateí, Journal of Economic and Social History of the Orient 24: 15-41.
Foster, B. R., 1982, ëEthnicity and onomastics in Sargonis Mesopotamiaí, Orientalia 51: 297-354.
Foster, B. R., 1982, Administration and use of institutional land in Sargonic Sumer. Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag (Mesopotamia : Copenhagen studies in assyriology ; 9;
Foster, B., 1987, ëNotes on women in Sargonic societyí, Durand, J.-M., Editor. La Femme dans le Proche-Orient Antique. Paris: Editions Recherche sur les Civilisations; pp. 53-61.
Foxvog, D., 1980, ëFunerary furnishings in an early Sumerian text from Adabí, Mesopotamia 8: 67-75.
Garelli, P. Ed, 1960. Gilgamesh et sa légende. Rencontre assyriologique internationale, Paris.
Gelb, I. J., 1963. A Study of Writing. rev.ed., Chicago.
Gelb, I., 1965, ëThe ancient Mesopotamian ration systemí, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 24: 230-243.
Gelb, I., 1973, ëPrisoners of war in early Mesopotamiaí, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 32: 70-98.
Gelb, I., 1979, ëHousehold and family in early Mesopotamiaí, Lipinski, E., Editor. State and Temple Economy in the Ancient Near East. Leuven: Department Oriëntalistick; pp. 1-99.
Geld, I. J., 1944, Hurrians and Subarians. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press
Goody, J., 1986. The Logic of Writing and the Organization of Society. Cambridge University Press.
Gordon, C., 1968. Forgotten Scripts. London.
Green, M. W., 1977, ëA note on an archaic period geographical list from Warkaí, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 36: 293-294.
Green, M. W., 1980, ëAnimal husbandry at Uruk in the archaic periodí, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 39: 1-35.
Hallo, W. W., 1983. Sumerian Historiography.
Heimpel, W., 1987, ëThe natural history of the Tigris according to the Sumerian literary composition Lugalí, Journal of Near Eastern Studies : 309-317.
Hooke, S. H. Ed., 1958. Myth, Ritual and Kingship: essays on the theory and practice of kingship in the ancient Near East and Israel. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Hooke, S., 1963. Middle Eastern Mythology. London.
Hooker, J. T. Ed., 1990. Reading the Past: Ancient Writing from Cuneiform to Alphabet. British Museum Publications, London.
Jacobsen, T., 1939, ëThe assumed conflict between the Sumerians and Semites in early Mesopotamian historyí, Journal of the American Oriental Society 59: 485-495.
Jacobsen, T., 1943. ëPrimitive democracy in ancient Mesopotamia.í, J. Near East. Studs.  2 (1943):159-72.
Jacobsen, T., 1957. ëEarly political developments in Mesopotamia.í, Zeitschr. F. Assyriol.  52 (1957):91-140.
Jacobsen, T., 1994, ëThe historian and the Sumerian godsí, Journal of the American Oriental Society 114: 145-153.
Jacobsen, T., 1996. The Sumerian King-List. Assyriological Studies 1 Chicago.; 1939.
Jacobsen, T.,, 1987, The harps that once- : Sumerian poetry in translation. New Haven: Yale University Press
Kirk, G. S., 1970. Myth, its meaning and function in ancient and other societies. London.
Kramer, S., 1952, Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta : a Sumerian epic tale of Iraq and Iran. Philadelphia: University Museum, niversity of Pennsylvania
Lieberman, S. J., 1980, ëOf clay pebbles, hollow clay balls, and writing: a Sumerian view.í, American Journal of Archaeology  84: 339-58.
Limit, H., 1987, ëThe cuisine of ancient Sumerí, Biblical Archaeologist 50(September): 132-140.
Michalowski, P., 1983, ëHistory as charter: some observations on the Sumerian King Listí, Journal of the American Oriental Society 103: 237-248.
Michalowski, P., 1986, ëMental maps and ideology: reflections on Subartuí, Weiss, H., Editor. The Origins of Cities in Dry-Farming Syria and Mesopotamia in the third millennium BC. Guildford: Four Quarters; pp. 129-156.
Nissen, H. J.; Damerow, P., and Englund, R. K., 1993. Archaic Bookingkeeping: Early Writing and Techniques of the Economic Administration in the Ancient Near East. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Nissen, H., 1986. ëThe archaic texts from Urukí, World Archaeolopgy  17(3): 317-334.
Oates, J., 1986, Editor. ëEarly Writing Systemsí, World Archaeolopgy  17(3).
Oppenheim, A. L., 1954. ëThe Sea-faring Merchants of Ur.í, Journal of the American Oriental Society 74: 6-17.
Oppenheim, A. L., 1967. Letters from Mesopotamia. Chicago.
Powell, M., 1994, ëElusive Eden: private property at the dawn of historyí, Journal of Cuneiform Studies 46: 99-104.
Pritchard, J. B. Ed., 1974. Ancient Near Eastern Texts relating to the Old Testament. 3rd ed., Princeton University Press, (note copies of 1st and 2nd editi.
Rubio, G., 1999, ëOn the Alleged ìPre-Sumerian Substratumîë, Journal of Cuneiform Studies 51.
Note: Forthcoming.
Schmandt-Besserat, D., 1978. ëThe earliest precursor of writingí, Scientific American  238 (1978): 38-47. Reprinted in Lamberg-Karlovs.
Schmandt-Besserat, D., 1992. Before Writing: from Counting to Cuneiform. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Steinkeller, P., 1997, ëThe Organization of Crafts in Third Millennium Babylonia: The Case of Pottersí, Mitteilungen Der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft 129: 232-253.
Steinkeller, P., 1999, ëOn rulers, priests and sacred marriage: Tracing the evolution of early Sumerian kingshipí, Watanabe, K., Editor. Priests and officials in the Ancient Near East. Heidelberg: Universitatsverlag C. Winter; pp. 103-137.
Tinney, S., 1995, ëA New Look at Naram-Sin and the ìGreat Rebellionîë, Journal of Cuneiform Studies 47: 1-14.
Vallat, F., 1986. ëThe most ancient scripts of Iran: the current situation.í, World Archaeolopgy  17(3): 335-47.
Walker, C. B. F., 1990. Cuneiform.
Wall Roman, C., 1990, ëAn areal location of Agadeí, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 49: 205-245.
Westenholz, J. G., 1990, ëTowards a new conceptulization of the female role in Mesopotamian societyí, Journal of the American Oriental Society 110: 510-512.
Wohlstei, H., 1976, The Sky-God, An-Anu. P.A. Strook: Jericho, New York
Yoffee, N., 1995, ëPolitical economy in early Mesopotamian statesí, Annual Review of Anthropology 8: 161-205.
Young, D. W., 1991, ëThe incredible regnal spans of Kish I in the Sumerian King Listí, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 50: 23-35.

Art and Seals

Antonova, E., 199?. ëImages on seals and the ideology of the state formation processí, Mesopotamia 27: 77-87.
Caldwell, D. H., 1976. ëThe early glyptic of Gawra, Giyan and Susa and the development of long distance tradeí, Orientalia 45(3): 227-250.
Charvát, P., 1988. ëArchaeology and social history: the Susa sealings c.4000-2300 BCí, Paléorient  14/1: 57-63.
Collon, D., 1987. First Impression: Cylinder Seals in the Ancient Near East. Oxford: British Museum Press.
Cooper, J., 1990, ëMesopotamian historical consciousness and the production of monumental art in the third millennium BCí, Gunter, A., Editor. Investigating Artistic Environments in the Ancient Near East. Malibu: Undena; pp. 39-51.
Foster, B., 1985, ëThe Sargonic victory stele from Tellohí, Iraq 47: 15-30.
Garrison, M. B., 1989, ëAn Eary Dynastic III seal in the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology: the relationship of style and iconography in Early Dynastic III glypticí, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 48: 1-13.
Gibson, McG. and Biggs, R. D. eds. 1977, Seals and Sealing in the Ancient Near East, Bibliotheca Mesopotamica 6..
Matthews, R., 1993, Cities, Seals, and Writing: Archaic Seal Impressions from Jemdet Nasr and Ur. Berlin: Gebr. Mann.
Michalowski, P., 1990, ëEarly Mesopotamian communicative systems: art, literature, and writingí, Gunter, A., Editor. Investigating Artistic Environments in the Ancient Near East. Washington, D.C. Smithsonian Institution Press; pp. 53-69.
Moortgat, A., 1969. The Art of Ancient Mesopotamia.
Pittman, H., 1994. The Glazed Steatite Glypic Style: The Structure and Function of an Image System in the Administration of Protoliterate Mesopotamia. Reimer.
Pittman, Holly, 1994, ëTowards and understanding of the role of glyptic imagery in the administrative systems of Protoliterate Greater Mesopotamiaí, Ferioli, P.; Fiandar, E.; Fissore, G. G, and Frangipane, M., Editors. Archives Before Writing. Turin: Scriptorium; pp. 177-203.
Pollock, S., 1991, ëWomen in a menís world: images of Sumerian womení, Gero, J. and Conkey, M., Editors. Engendering Archaeology: Women and Prehistory. Oxford: Basil Blackwell; pp. 366-387.
Pritchard, J. B. Ed., 1969. The Ancient Near East in Pictures relating to the Old Testament. Princeton.
Pritchard, J. B. Ed., 1969. The Ancient Near East: supplementary texts and pictures relating to the Old Testament. 2 vols. Princeton University Press.
Schmandt-Besserat, D., 1993, ëImages of Enshipí, Frangipane, M.; Hauptman, H.; Liverani, M.; Matthiae, P., and Mellink, M., Editors. Between the Rivers and over the Mountains. Rome: Univeristà di Roma ìLa Sapienzaî; pp. 201-219.
Winters, I. J., 1985, ëAfter the battle is over: The Stele of the Vultures and the beginning of historical narrative in the art of the Ancient Near Eastí, Studies in the History of Art 16: 11-32.
Zettler, R., 1987, ëSeals as artefacts of institutional administration in ancient Mesopotamiaí, Journal of Cuneiform Studies  39: 197-240.
Zimansky, Paul, 1993, ëReview of Before Writing, by Denise Schmandt-Besseratí, Journal of Field Archaeology 20: 513-517.

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