a-a: father (reduplicated 'offspring').

a-ab-ba: (cf., aba).

a-ah-du11-ga: (cf., ah-du11-ga).

a-ba: who (a, 'to', + bi, 'it', + a, 'the').

a-ba-al: 'dry' asphalt (Akkadian loanword - abaalu, 'to be dry; to mourn', may be Orel & Stolbova #2519).

a-bala: drawing of water (a, 'water', + bala, 'turn, duty').

a-da-ab: a type of song (also written as a-tab, 'burning tears' ?).

a-da-al-ta: from now on ('now' + 'from').

a-da gub-ba: water duty ('water' + 'near' + 'to stand' + nominative).

a-da-lam; i-da-al-àm: now ('now' + 'to be').

a-da-mìn: contest ('when' + 'with' + 'an equal').

a-da-mìn...aka: to compete (with someone: -da-) ('contest' + 'to do, make').

a-da-mìn...dug4/du11/e: to compete ('contest' + 'to speak, do, make').

a-da...tuš: to live near the water ('water' + 'near' + 'to dwell (singular)').

a-dar-túnku6: a fish ('water' + 'to slice' + 'to smash').

a...dé: to pour out water; to irrigate; to flood ('water' + 'to pour').

a-dé: fresh.

a-dé-a: the yearly spring flood ('water' + 'to pour' + nominative).

a-dùg: freshwater ('water' + 'sweet, fresh').

a...dug4/e: to irrigate ('water' + 'to do').

a-dun-a: inshore fisherman (?) ('water' + 'lowly student' + nominative).

a-è-a: overflowing or breaks in levees ('water' + 'to emerge' + nominative).

A.EN-da-urudu: a type of copper.

a-eštubku6: high tide, early flood ('water' + 'river carp').

a-ga: back, backside; after; back room (cf., egtildeir).

a-ga...gur: to turn back ('back' + 'to return').

a-ga-am, a-ga-àm, a-ga-mu-um: artificial pond - a large, marshy, and permanent or semi-permanent lake used as a reservoir to dispose of flood waters (prob. Akk. loanword).

a-ga-aš-gi4: the most awkward one ('in back' + 'the one' + 'to send, reject').

a-ga-bi-šè: afterwards ('after' + adverbial force suffix + 'towards').

a-ga-zu-ta: behind you ('back' + 'your' + 'from').

a-gáb: (cf., ugu4-bi).

a-gal: overflow of flood waters ('waters' + 'big').

a-gàr: irrigated field ('water; seed' + 'cake' ?).

a-gar5: lead, the metal.

a-gig: bitter tears ('water' + 'pain').

-a-gin7: as (= when) ...; in that way; how! ('if, when' + 'like').

a-e...gu7(-a): eroded by the water ('water' + ergative agent marker + 'to consume' ( + nominative)).

a-gúb-ba: holy water ('water' + 'to purify' + nominative).

kuša-gtildeá-lá: leather sack (for flour) ('water' + 'to store' + 'to lift, carry').

a-gtildeá-ri-in: a flat area (measured in sar) (cf., gtildearim).

A-gtildear: (cf., e5-gtildear).

a...gtildear/gtildeá-gtildeá: to irrigate; to be submerged ('water' + 'to store; to deposit, deliver').

a-gtildei6(-a): flood ('water' + 'to be black' + nominative).

a-šè...gtildein/gub: to go to fetch water ('water' + 'to the' + 'to go').

a-hur-rum: (cf., hu-ru(-um)).

a-ia10-lum: stag (Akkadian loanword).

a...íl: to carry water ('water' + 'to lift, carry').

a-ka: (cf., úgu).

a-kúm: hot water ('water' + 'hot').

a-la, a-la-la: exclamation, often of joy; exuberance ('tears' + 'happiness').

a-lu: adjective for small cattle.

a-lum: adjective for sheep.

a-ma-ru: destructive flood ('water' + 'to go' + 'to send'; cf., u18-ru).

a-mah: flood, overflow, bursting of a dam ('water' + 'high, mighty').

a-maš: sheepfold (cf., amaš).

a-MI: (cf., a-gtildei6).

a-na: what (a,'to', + ni,'he, she', + a,'the').

a-na me-a-bi: as many as they are; all of it ('what there is of it').

a-na-àm: thus; why ('what' + enclitic copula).

a-na-àm...aka: what (will/did) X do?.

a-na-aš(-am): why? (why is it that ...?) ('what' + 'one'[ + 'to be']).

a-na-gim, a-na-gin7-nam: how ('what' + 'like'[ + abstract process]).

a-ne: (cf., e-ne).

a-nir: lamentation, dirge ('tears' + 'to raise high').

a-nu-gi4-a: (cf., á-nu-gi4-a).

a numun-sagtilde-gtildeá: water of the first seeds = watering of seeds just planted ('water' + 'seeds' + 'first' + genitive).

úa-númun: reeds, rushes ('water' + 'grass, rushes').

a-pa4: funerary pipe (a clay pipe through which water and beer were poured into the grave) ('water' + 'small canal').

a...ra: to ejaculate ('seminal fluid' + 'to strike, overflow').

a-ra-zu: prayer, rite ('tears' + 'to overflow' + 'to inform').

a-ra-zu...e: to say a prayer [often introduces direct, quoted speech in the texts].

a-rá: way, road; times (multiplication) ('where' + 'to go, carry [plural]'; cf., a-ri-a).

a-rá-bumušen: duck ('water' + 'to go [plural]' + 'to pull, tear out').

a-ri-a, a-ru-a: district; desert, waste land ('where' + remote demonstrative affix + nominative).

a...ri: to engender ('semen' + 'to pour into').

a...ru: to dedicate; to give as a votive gift (with dative) ('water' + 'to send').

a-sa-ga: propitious water ('water' + sa6-ga, 'to win fortune').

a-sal-bar: architrave ('water' + 'to spread' + 'to distribute, remove').

a...si: to be filled with water ('water' + 'to fill up').

a-silim: potion ('water' + 'health').

a-šà-(g): field; area ('seed' + 'womb'; cf., a-gàr; ašag).

a-šà-dib(-dib)-ba: the act of trimming the fields and levees of vegetation in preparation for drainage and irrigation ('fields' + 'to seize, bind, take away' + nominative).

a-ša4: (cf., á-še).

a-še-ra: lamentation.

a-šed12: cool water ('water' + 'cool').

a-(IM)šègtilde-gtildeá: rainwater ('water' + 'rain' + genitive).

a-šeš: bitter, brackish water ('water' + 'bitter, brackish').

-a-ta: after ... ('when' + 'away from').

a...tab: to hold or block water ('water' + 'to hold').

a-tar...aka: to play; to mock ('water' + 'to cut, break' + 'to do, act').

a...tu5: to bathe ('water' + 'to wash').

a-tu5-a: lustration ('water' + 'to wash' + nominative).

a...tùm: to flow with water ('water' + 'to bring, carry').

a-tur-ra, a-tùr, é-tùr: hollow (of the furrow) ? ('water' + 'birth-hut' for a plant seed ?; related to Orel & Stolbova #1323, *hadar- "darkness" ?).

a-ù: high water, spring flood ('water' + 'high').

a-u4-te-na: at the cool of the day ('when' + 'day' + ten,'coolness').

a-u5-ba...gtildeál: to be at its high tide ('when' + 'on top' + bi,'its', + a,nominative, + 'to be').

a-ugu4[KU]: the father who begot one ('semen' + 'to procreate').

a úš-a: to dam up water ('water' + 'piling up an earthen dam').

a-zi-ga: rising waters ('water' + 'to rise up' + nominative).

a-zu; a-zu5; a-su: physician (cf., azu).

á...ágtilde: to command; to instruct (someone: -da-) ('strength' + 'to check').

á-ágtilde-gtildeá: instructions, orders ('strength' + 'to check', + a, nominalizer).

á-an-zú-lum-ma: date clusters; raceme ('arm, wing' + 'sky, high' + 'date fruit').

(gtildeiš)á-apin: part of a seeder plow ('arm' + 'plow').

á-áš: what one needs ('strength' + 'to wish, desire').

á-bi ba-ma-ta: at one-half its hire price ('wages' + 'its' + 'to divide' + 'to go' + 'from').

á...búru: to open the wings ('wings' + 'to spread out').

á-dab5: hirelings ('wages' + 'to hire').

á-dah: help; ally ('strength' + 'to add').

á-dam: settlement; levy ('wages' + 'spouse').

á...dar: to confiscate ('wages' + 'to split').

á...dúb; á-dúb...aka: to flap one's wings (with -šè and -ši-, to fly towards) ('wings' + 'to flap' + 'to do').

á-ní-za...dúb: to be (supported) on your own ('wings' + 'self' + 'your' + 'to flap').

á...è: to bring up, rear; to take care ('strength' + 'to emerge').

á-gàr: embrace (?) ('arms' + 'something round and upraised').

á-gi4-a: reimbursed wages ('wages' + 'to return, restore' + nominative).

á-gú-zi-ga: early morning ('arms' + 'necks' + 'rising', + a, nominalizer).

á...gur: to bend the arm ('arm' + 'circular motion').

á guruš-bi: workmen's wages ('wages' + 'workers' + 'its').

á...gtildear: to act strongly; to oppress; to resist; to reinforce ('strength' + 'to establish').

á-gtildee6-ba-a: at night ('side' + 'dark' + 'to divide' + locative).

Á-KAL: strength; plow extension ('arm' + 'strong').

á kaskal-la: migrant harvest workers ('arms, work performance' + 'road, caravan, journey' + genitive).

itiá-ki-ti: calendar month 7 at Ur during Ur III; month 6 at Drehem through year 3 of Šu-Sin; calendar month 7 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3.

á-kúš-ù: to prevail ('strength' + 'to be tired').

á-lá: fettered legs; paralyzed arms ('arms' + 'to bind').

(gtildeiš)á-lá: a device for moving irrigation water, involving a water bucket hanging from a swinging beam ('arm' + 'to hang').

kušá-lá: drum ('side' + 'to bind').

á-mi: (cf., ama(4,5), áme).

á-ná-da: bed chamber ('side, wing' + 'bed').

á-nu-gi4-a: irresistable ('strength' + 'not' + 'to answer, return' + nominative).

á-sàgtilde[PA]: disease; sickness demon ('strength' + 'to scatter').

kušá-si: whip ('arm' + 'antenna-like').

á-sikil(-la): pure, undiluted strength ('strength' + 'pure' + nominative).

á...sud/sù: to move [intransitive] (reduplication class) ('arm' + 'to stretch').

á-suh: elbow; bolt, bar ('arm' + 'to relocate').

(urudu/zabar)á-sur: a type of ax ('arm' + 'to divide').

á-še: attention-getting exclamation: 'hey now!'.

á-šita4, á-šu-du7: parts, components (of the plow); equipment ('arm' + 'to join'/'to complete').

á...-ta: at the prompting of; by means of the strength of ('strength' + instrumental suffix).

á...tál: to have broad arms; to spread wings or arms ('arms; wings' + 'to be broad; to spread').

á-tuku: strength; able-bodied; mighty man ('arms; strength' + 'to have').

á-u4-te-en: in the evening ('side' + 'daylight' + 'to extinguish, cool down').

á-úr: limb, limbs, extremities ('arms' + 'legs': Sumerian example of asyndetic hendiadys).

á-zi(-da): right arm; with hitting, violence ('arm' + 'good, firm, right' + 'with').

ab-(ba): (cf., aba).

ab-ba: father; elder; ancestor (Akk. loanword).

(gtildeiš)ab-ba: (cf., gtildeiš-ab-ba(-k)).

ab-ba-uru: city elder ('elder' + 'city').

itiab(-ba)-è: calendar month 10 at Nippur during Ur III.

ab-ki-iz: clean furrow, unobstructed by weeds ('niche' + 'trimmed').

ab-làl: phonetic writing of ablal(3).

ab-sín; ab-si-im-ma; ab-sù-na: furrow ('niche' + 'to sift').

ab-sín-gilim-ba/ma: crossing, transversal furrow, possibly for drainage ('furrow' + 'to cross plow' ( + 'its') + nominative).

áb-ama: mother cow ('cow' + 'mother').

áb-amar: mother cow ('cow' + 'calf').

áb-gir15/gi7[KU]: domestic cow ('cow' + 'domestic').

áb-gud-há: herd ('cow' + 'bull' + 'assorted, mixed').

áb-máh[AL]: cow in 3rd year of life that has calved ('cow' + 'calf').

áb-sagtilde: a piece of tableware (?).

áb-úr: a piece of tableware (?).

ad-da: (cf., ada).

ad...gi4: to echo; to ponder; to take counsel (with someone: -da-) ('shout' + 'to answer').

ad...gi4-gi4: to give counsel; to converse (confidentially) (cf., ad...gi4).

ad-kub4[KID]: reed weaver; wicker-worker; maker of reed mats, boats, and containers.

ad-kíd: reed mat plaiter ('father' + kid, 'reed mat').

ad...ša4: to wail; to resound; to sing ('song' + 'to mourn').

ad-tab: rein(s) ('shout' + 'to hold; to be double').

aga(3)-ús: policeman; companion, attendant; soldier ('crown' + 'to follow').

àga-rí(-na): (cf., agarin(2,3) or agarin4,5).

ah-du11-ga: spittle (of sorcery) ('spittle' + 'utterance').

ah...uš7[KA×LI]: to spit ('saliva' + 'spittle').

-/ak-eš/: because (genitival suffix + adverbial suffix).

al...aka: to work at hoeing ('hoe' + 'to do').

al...di/dug4/e: to desire, pray, demand, insist (often with -ni-) ('hoe' + 'to make the motion of').

al...dù: to hoe ground that is already broken ('hoe' + 'to mould, shape').

al-gazumx [ZUM+LAGAB]: an exotic spice.

(gtildeiš)al-gtildear: musical instrument ('hoe' + 'form, appearance').

(gtildeiš)al-gtildear-sur9: musical instrument ((gtildeiš)al-gtildear, + 'to hang, suspend' [suru5 ?]).

(gtildeiš)al-la-an: oak tree (Akk. loanword from allaanum, 'oak', cf., Orel & Stolbova #31 *'alan-/*'alun- 'tree').

al-la-ha-ru: a tanning agent used to produce a white color.

al-lu5: crab ('digger' + 'to deceive').

al-lub/lu5: a type of ax (phonetic harmony variant of al-šub ?).

al-lu5-háb: a type of net (for crabs ?) ('crab' + 'to stink').

(gtildeiš)al...ri/ra: to demolish with the hoe; to punish ('hoe' + 'to break open; to strike').

(gtildeiš)al-šub: ax-like hoe ('hoe' + 'to throw; to fell').

al...tag: to hoe ('hoe' + 'to handle').

(gtildeiš)al-tar: demolishing tool (?) ('hoe' + 'to cut, break').

am-si: elephant ('wild ox' + 'horn, ray, antenna'; cf., šu-si, 'finger').

ama-a-tu/tud: (cf., emedu).

ama-ar-gi4: freedom ('mother' + 'to shine' + 'to restore').

ama-gan; ama-ugu: natural or birth mother ('mother' + ùgun, ugu(4), 'to beget').

itiamar-a-a-si: calendar month 10 at Lagaš during Ur III.

amar-kud: separated, weaned young animal ('calf' + 'to cut away from').

an-ba: refuse; litter; dirt ('open air' + 'to give up').

AN.BAR: (cf., barzil).

an-bar7[NE]; an-bar: noon; midday ('sky' + 'to be bright').

an-bir8[A-SUD]: noon; midday rest ('sky' + 'to be hot' ['WATER' + 'TO SIP']).

an-dùl: shade; protection ('sky' + 'to cover, protect').

an-edin: high plain ('high' + 'steppe').

an-ga-àm: likewise (cf., in-ga-na-nam).

an-gur4: (cf., engur).

an-gtildeá: and yet (affirmative prefix ? + 'exists').

an-kára: (cf., enkara).

an-ki: universe ('sky' + 'earth').

AN.MUL: starry sky (verify than AN is not the rare sign ŠÚ; cf., kunga[ŠÚ.MUL]).

an-na: tin; yes ('sky' + 'stone'; Civil thinks an-na, 'yes', is probably an Akkadianism, but cf., affirmative na-nam, 'indeed' and in-nu, 'negation').

an-na...dug4/e: to say yes ('yes' + 'to say').

an-nisig(-ga): beautiful sky, blue sky ('sky' + 'beautiful, blue').

an-pa: zenith ('sky' + 'branch' of sun dial ?).

an-SAR: (cf., an-nisig).

an-sig7-ga: the beautiful sky ('sky' + 'to be beautiful' + nominative).

an-ša4-anki: Anshan - place name for powerful city in Elam - Tall-i Malyan near Persepolis in the Fars province of Iran.

an-šár(-ra): all of heaven, the whole sky ('heaven' + 'totality, horizon').

an-še: ear of grain ('grain ear' + 'grain, barley').

an-ta: above ('heaven' + locative with remote deixis).

an-ta-gtildeál: high, superior ('sky; high' + 'from' + 'to be').

an-ta...gi4: to meet ('heaven' + 'from' + 'to return').

an-ta-sur-ra: a stone ('heaven' + 'from' + 'boundary marker' + nominative).

an-ub-da: regions; "quarter" ('sky' + 'corners' + 'with').

an-úr: horizon ('sky' + 'base, floor').

an-uraš: heaven and earth; universe ('heaven' + 'earth').

an-usan: evening ('sky' + 'evening').

an-za-kàr: tower, fort ('heaven' + 'stone' + 'round, high thing').

an-zag, an-zà: where heaven ends ('heaven' + 'side, boundary').

an-zah: heated or fused lead (an, 'tin' + 'to be calm').

anše-bala: pack-ass ('equid' + 'to cross over, deliver').

anše-bar-an-mi2: female donkey ('equid' + 'foreign' + 'high' + 'female').

anše-bar-an-nita2: male donkey ('equid' + 'foreign' + 'high' + 'male').

anše-bìr: ass yoked in a team ('equid' + 'team').

anše-dub: ass registered on a tablet ('equid' + 'tablet').

anše-du24-ùr: (cf., dur9[ŠUL]).

anše-edin-na: wild ass ('equid' + 'steppe' + a(k), genitival postposition).

anše-gtildeiš: workass ('equid' + 'tool').

ANŠE-ka: one of the best groups of people.

anše-kunga(2): mule ('horse' + 'donkey').

anše-mar: chariot or wagon ass ('equid' + 'wagon').

itiapin-dug-a: calendar month 8 at Nippur during Ur III.

APIN-lal: cultivating leasehold land ('plow' + 'to pay').

(gtildeiš)apin-numun: plow fitted with seeder attachment ('plow' + 'seed').

apin-ús: plowman's helper ('plow' + 'to follow; to be next to').

ar(2)...de6/túmu: to praise ('praise' + 'to bring').

(gtildeiš)ar-ga-nu-um: a coniferous tree (Akkadian loanword ?).

ár...e/i: to praise ('praise' + 'to speak; to send forth').

aš-me: sparkle, glimmer; sundisk; star symbol; rosette ('unique' + 'function, power').

áš á-zi-ga...bal: to curse with violence ('curse' + 'raised arms' + 'to deliver').

áš...bal: to curse ('curse' + 'to deliver').

áš...dug4/e: to curse ('curse' + 'to speak/effect').

SALÁŠ.GÀR: (cf., zeh).

áš...gi4: to answer with a curse ('curse' + 'to answer').

áš...mú: to curse ('curse' + 'to blow, speak').

áš...sar: to curse ('curse' + 'to write').

(gtildeiš)az-gú: neck-stock ('fetter' + 'neck').

ba-ab-si: it is more (conjugation prefix + inanimate direct object prefix + 'to be full, sufficient').

ba-al: to dig (a canal); to channel ('to divide' + 'digging stick').

ba-an: a measure for bread and flour.

(gtildeiš)ba-an: a container.

ba-ba: pudding, malt-sweetened porridge.

ba-da-ra: poniard (Akk. patarru, pattaru).

ba-lá: it is less (conjugation prefix + 'light, deficient').

ba-rV: to fly, flee (cf., bad, bar).

ba-ra: modal prefix - with marû denotes vetitive; with hamtu denotes negative affirmative.

ba-ra(-g): to spread out (cf., bara4).

(gtildeiš)ba-rí-ga: bushel; square-based measuring vessel = 6 bán in all periods (= 36 liters in Old Sumerian period and 60 liters in Old Akkadian and Neo-Sumerian period) (cf., bariga).

ba-ta-tur; ba-ra-tur: it is short (conjugation prefix + earlier/later ablative case prefix + 'small, insufficient').

ba-za: halt or lame person (cf., ki...za).

ba-zi: dispersed ('to divide' + 'to go out').

bàd-nigtildein: circular city wall ('city wall' + 'enclosure, circle').

bàd-si: parapet, battlement ('city wall' + 'long, narrow').

bàd-si-an-na: high battlements ('parapet' + 'to be high' + nominative).

bàd-šul-hi; bàd-sìl-hi: outer wall ('city wall' + 'invader'/'path' + 'numerous').

bala-šè...aka: to transport ('goods delivery' + 'towards' + 'to do').

bala-dab5-ba: worker hired to work for a bala' period ('term' + 'to hire' + nominative).

bala éš-kàr: fraction of an assignment ('term, portion' + 'work assignment').

bala-gub-ba: worker stationed to work for a bala' period ('term' + 'to stand' + nominative).

(gtildeiš)bala...sir5: to spin with a spindle ('spindle' + 'to spin').

balagtilde-íl: harp or lyre carrier ('harp' + 'to lift').

balagtilde-ír-ra: lamentation harp ('harp' + 'lamentation' + genitival a(k)).

bàn-da: (cf., bànda).

bar...aka: to choose; to examine ('to open; to see; to select' + 'to do').

bar-tam...(ak): to choose ('to open; to see; to select' + 'polished, shiny' [ + 'to do']).

(gtildeiš)bar-bar: part of a weaver's loom (shuttle ?).

(gtildeiš)bar-bé-da: a tool.

bar...dab5: to escape ('outside' + 'to take away').

bar...dag: to wander far away ('outside' + 'to roam about').

(gtildeiš)bar-dil: a type of plow (rare outside of lexical lists).

bar-dúb-ba: a good price ('to split, distribute' + 'to knock down' + nominative).

(gtildeiš)bar-e11-dè: rope braiding lever ('outside' + 'to descend' + participial ending).

bar-edin-na: edge of the desert ('side' + 'steppe' + genitival a(k)).

bar-ég-ga: outer side of the levee ('outer side' + 'levee' + genitival a(k)).

bar...gub: to step outside ('outside' + 'to stand').

bar-ta...gub: to withdraw from ('side' + 'to stand aside').

bar-gùn-gùn-nu: chameleon ('sides' + reduplicated 'to be multicolored' + nominative with vowel harmony).

bar...gtildeál: to be outside; to be extra ('outside' + 'to be').

bar-gtildeál-la: unsheared ('fleece' + 'to be in place' + nominative).

bar-lá: part of an irrigation system ('outside' + 'to lift').

bar-LU: one of the best wool blends.

bar-rim4[KAŠ4](-ma): dry land ('to uncover' + 'to travel fast'?; cf., parim).

bar-šègtilde-gtildeá(-e): violence; mist ('outside' + 'to rain' + loc./term. suffix).

(mi)bar-šu-gtildeál: midwife ('innards' + 'hand' + 'to place').

bar-TÚG: a long coat ('outside' + 'woven garment').

bar-ùl[KIB]: dog chain ('outside' + 'leash').

bar-úsurudu: copper-tipped goading stick ('side?; metal?' + 'to drive'; cf., kak-ús).

itibára-zà-gtildear: calendar month 1 at Nippur during Ur III.

bar6-bar6: (some prefer this reading, but cf., bábbar).

bar7-bar7-ra: flames (reduplicated 'to shine' + nominative).

-bi-da(-ke4): and ('with it').

bi-bi-zé: to drip (reduplicated biz, 'to pour').

bi-iz: drop (of water); dripping, melting (cf., biz, 'to pour').

bí-ra: mixed, mingled (bir,'to scatter, mix' + nominative).

bí-za-za: frog (za,'a repeated, monotonous noise').

bir...aka: to sow broadcast (not in furrows with a plow); to dehusk ('to scatter' + 'to do').

bír-bír: (cf., babbar).

bìr-inim-kéš-de6: contractually bound worker ('team' + 'oath, agreement' + 'to bind').

(gtildeiš)bìr-mar: wagon yoke ('team' + 'wagon').

bu-lu-úh...si-il: to belch ('to tear out' + 'to be numerous' + 'saliva' + 'to tear apart').

bu-úh; bu-luh: to tremble ('to tear out' + 'saliva' or 'to clean'; cf., buluh).

gibún-gtildeìr: feet bellows ('to blow; bellows' + 'foot').

gibún-šu: hand bellows ('to blow; bellows' + 'hand').

bur-BÚN.SÁ: a stone vessel.

bur-šál-la: a stone vessel ('stone vessel' + 'measuring pot' + nominative).

buru14...su-su: to have the harvest be drowned (by spring floods bursting the dikes) ('harvest' + 'to drown').

da-ba-ri-ri: contortionist (cf., da-ri).

da-da-ga: (cf., dadag).

da-ga: organization; chamber (dag,'to stretch' + nominative).

(gtildeiš)da-pa: part of a seeder plow (?).

da-ra-an-šub: negligence ('to drop, let fall').

da...ri: to pay off a delivery (?; with dative) ('to protect' + 'to exchange').

da-ri: to bend (limbs) ('arm' + rig; ri,'to pull').

da-ri: driver (of animals) ('to protect' + rig; ri,'to bring, tend').

da-ri-a: driven (animal) (da-ri + nominative).

da-rí[URU]: long-lasting, enduring, eternal ('near, present' + remote demonstrative affix ?).

da-rí-šè: forever ('eternal' + 'towards').

dab5-ba: hired man ('to hire' + nominative).

dag-gi4-a: city quarter ('dwellings' + 'to surround, lock up' + nominative).

dagtildeal-búru: spread out over a wide extent ('wide' + 'to spread out').

dagtildeal-tag(-ga): widely based ('wide' + 'to handle, touch' + nominative).

dal-ba(-an)-na: between (dalla, 'beam, ray' + 'to divide' + ?).

dalla...è: to shine; to appear; to make clear; to make resplendent ('beam of light' + 'to become visible').

dam-ab-ba: (professional) mourners ('spouse' + 'elder, ancestor').

(gtildeiš)dam-apin: part of a seeder plow ('spouse' + 'plow').

dam-gàr(-a): merchant (Akk. loanword from tamkaarum, 'merchant', cf., makaarum 'to do business').

dam-ha-ra: battle (Akk. loanword from tamhaaru(m)).

dam...tuku/du12-du12: to marry ('spouse' + 'to get').

dar-ra: cured, dried (?).

dè-dal: ashes ('ashes' + 'to fly').

di-bi-da: donkey ('to go, conduct oneself' + 'it' + 'with').

di...dab5: to take up a lawsuit ('lawsuit' + 'to take').

di-dab5-ba: decision ('decision' + 'to take' + nominative).

di-di: to play (an instrument) (cf., dug4).

di...dug4/du11/e: to conduct a trial; to give a claim; to sue someone (with -da-) ('lawsuit' + 'to effect').

di...gub: to judge ('judgment' + 'to set up').

di-ir-ga: cultic organization center.

di-kud/ku5: judge; judgment ('decision' + 'to cut off').

di...kud/ku5: to judge ('decision' + 'to cut off').

di-kúr: alien, hostile judgment ('decision' + 'hostile').

di-li-du-a: (cf., dili-du(-a)).

di-ri: (cf., dirig).

di-til-la: law case for which a final decision has been given ('verdict' + 'to complete' + nominative).

di4-di4-ba: walking about (phonetic for dib, reduplicated + nominative).

di4-di4-la: children.

(gtildeiš)dib-dib: clepsydra, water clock (onomatopoeic or reduplicated 'to pass, traverse').

digtildeir-da...nu-me-a: without a (personal) god ('god' + 'with' + 'not' + 'to be' + nominative).

dili-dili, dil-dil: one by one (cf., didli) (reduplicated 'one').

dili-du(-a): walking alone; individual (dili, 'alone' + 'to walk' + nominative).

dìm-šáh: bear (the animal) ('sickness demon' ? + 'domestic pig').

DIM4.SAR(-d): maltman.

dirig-...-še: beyond ('to go over' + 'to the').

DU.DU: (cf., lah5).

du-lum: burden, labor, work ('to walk' + 'to make productive').

du-rí: (cf., da-rí).

DU-zu: (read arax-zu; cf., a-ra-zu).

dú-ru-na(-àm): (cf., duruna).

itidu6-kù: calendar month 7 at Nippur during Ur III.

du6-ul: to heap up, store, gather (cf., dul(6)).

du7-na-bi: adv., in the proper way; if you please ('fitting, suitable' + ? + adverbial force suffix).

du8-du8: weaned young (reduplicated 'to untie, loosen').

du10: (cf., dùg).

du10-sa: friend, companion ('gladness' + 'to repay').

du10-ús: road ('good' + 'to follow').

du11-ga: utterance; speech ('to speak' + nominative).

du14...ak/gtildear: to quarrel (with someone: -da-) ('quarrel' + 'to do').

du14...mú: to start a quarrel ('quarrel' + 'to ignite').

du24-ùr: (cf., dur9[ŠUL]).

dub-alal-urudu: a temple servant ('to pour' + 'pipe' + 'copper').

gidub-ba-an: pillar made of reeds; a fence made of such pillars ('to heap up' + 'to divide' + 'to be high').

dub-bi...bala: to go over the account (with -da-) ('tablet' + 'its' + 'to pass through').

dub-dab...za: to thud, thump (see the definition for za).

dub-lá: platforms on either side of a portal ('to heap up' + 'to lift').

dub-sagtilde: leader ('list' + 'head').

dub-sar: scribe ('tablet' + 'to write').

dub-sar-tur: young scribe ('scribe' + 'small, young').

dub-sar: scribe ('tablet' + 'to write').

dub-šen: copper box, treasure chest ('to store' + 'shiny').

dug-a-nag-nag: water drinking vessel ('vessel' + 'water' + reduplicated 'to drink').

dug-nígtilde-nag: drinking vessel ('vessel' + 'object' + 'to drink').

dug-tur: a standard capacity jar = 5 liters ('jar' + 'little').

dùg/du10...aka: to repair ('gladness' + 'to make, cause').

dùg...bad(-bad): to stride, hurry ('knees' + 'to open').

dùg...dúb: to rub the knees (?) ('knees' + 'to flop').

kušdùg-gan: leather bag ('gladness' + 'to bring forth').

dùg...gúr: to sit down; to rest ('knees' + 'to bend').

dùg...gtildeál: to be pleased, satisfied ('gladness' + 'to be available').

dùg...gtildear: to kneel down, for someone: dative ('knees' + 'to place').

dùg-tuku: strong-legged ('knees' + 'to own').

dùg-ud-ak: politeness (cf., dùg/du10...aka).

dùg...zil: to run, flee ('knees' + 'to cut').

dum-dam...za: to grumble (see the definition for za).

dumu-aš: only son ('child' + 'one').

dumu-dab5-ba: serf ('child' + 'to seize, hire').

DUMU-DUMU-LA: (cf., di4-di4-la).

dumu-ga.eš8: deputy (?) of a merchant ('child' + 'merchantman').

dumu-gal: eldest son or daughter ('child' + 'large').

dumu-gir15/gi7: freeborn man, Sumerian [in contrast to slaves from foreign countries] ('child' + 'native group').

dumu-KA: grandson.

dumu-lú: gentleman ('child' + 'gentleman').

dumu-lugal(-/ak/): prince ('child' + 'king' + genitive).

dumu-mí: daughter ('child' + 'feminine').

dumu-mí-lugal(-/ak/): princess ('child' + 'female' + 'king' + genitive).

dumu-me-KA.UD: a cult servant ('child' + 'function' + ?).

dumu-nitah: son; (cf., ibila) ('child' + 'masculine').

dumu-sagtilde: first-born child ('child' + 'principal').

dumu-tab: twin sons ('child' + 'pair').

dumu-tu-da: son (born) of ('child' + 'to beget' + nominative).

iti ddumu-zi: calendar month 12 at Umma during Ur III.

(lú)DUN-a: dependent (on), subordinate ('subordinate' + nominative).

(gtildeiš)dun-gi: a tool; a type of yoke (?) ('to scrape, dig' + 'reed' or 'firm, strong').

dùn-lá: depression ('to bring low' + 'to hang'; cf., íl-lá, 'elevation').

dúr-dúr: dam to create a reservoir; (cf., duruna; durunx) (reduplicated 'buttocks; to dry out').

dúr...gtildear: to sit ('buttocks' + 'to set down upon').

dúr-ki...gtildear: to establish one's dwelling ('to dwell (plural)' + 'place' + 'to establish').

(gtildeiš)dúr-gtildear: chair; throne.

dúr-ru-un: to sit (plural); (cf., duruna; tuš).

dúr-šáh: ham ('buttocks' + 'domestic pig').

dùr-KAS4: donkey foal.

dur10-tab-ba: double ax ('ax' + 'to be double' + nominative).

dusu...lá: to carry a basket ('transportation basket' + 'to lift').

e-el[SIKIL]-lu: a (pure) sound (Akkadian ellu, 'clear, pure').

kuše-íb-ùr: siege shield ('dike' + 'middle, loins' + 'roof').

e-li-lum: cry of joy.

e-ne: he, she; him, her.

e-ne-àm: he is indeed (formal 3rd person pronoun + 'to be').

e-ne...dug4/di/du11/e: to play (3rd person pronoun + 'to do').

e-ne-gim: like himself (3rd person pronoun + equative).

e-ne-ne: they; them.

e-ne-sù-ud...dug4/du11/e: to rejoice; to copulate (with -da-) ('to play' + sud, 'to lengthen; to immerse').

e-pa5(-r): hydraulic system (of a particular farmer or of the land as a whole) ('levees' + 'irrigation ditches'; asyndetic hendiadys).

(gtildeiš)e-ra-núm: a tree and wood used for construction (cf., erin, eren).

e-re-sì-ki-in: servant (?).

e-ri-iš: queen, lady.

e-si-na; ì-si-na: culm or stalk of barley.

kuše-sír: sandal; shoe (cf., èsir).

e-sír-ra: in the streets ('sandals' + locative).

e-še-á: a type of canal or ditch.

e-ùr: armor (cf., kuše-íb-ùr).

e-zé: you.

é-a-nir-ra: house of mourning ('house' + 'lamentation' + genitive).

é-a-nir-ra-gal-gal-la: euphemism for the netherworld ('house of mourning' + reduplicated 'big' + genitive).

é-a...ti(-l): to live in a house ('house' + locative + 'to live').

é-ad-da(-/ak/): the house of one's fathers ('house' + 'father' + genitive).

é-an-na: sanctuary ('house' + 'Heaven' + genitive).

é-anše: donkey stable ('house' + 'equid').

é-ba-an: an adjective denoting a very fine quality.

é-BAPPIR: (cf., é-lùnga).

é-bar-ra: outer house ('house' + 'outside' + nominative).

é...bùr: to break into a house (reduplication class) ('house' + 'to break into').

é-da[-di-a]: a flour offering.

é-dù-a: house plot ('house' + 'to build' + nominative).

é-dub-ba: archive; school ('house' + 'tablet' + genitival a(k)).

é-duru5: hamlet, rural settlement, suburb ('houses' + 'fresh'; cf., Akk. adurû, 'village, outpost' and Orel & Stolbova #658, *dar- 'dwelling place').

é-ta...è: to leave the house ('house' + 'from' + 'to exit').

é-éše: jail ('house' + 'rope').

é-gal: palace ('house' + 'large').

é-ganba: warehouse ('house' + 'marketplace').

é-gtildear: form, shape ('house' + 'form, appearance').

é-gtildear8: brick wall (cf., egtildear).

é-gi4-a: daughter-in-law; prospective bride ('the one who restores the house').

é-ì-gára: dairy ('house' + 'fat' + 'cream').

itié-iti-6: calendar month 8 at Umma during Ur III.

é-kaš: a public house, pub ('house' + 'beer').

é-KI.LAM: a storehouse ('house' + 'place' + 'abundance').

é-na4kín-na: mill house, mill ('house' + 'millstone' + genitival a(k)).

é-kišib(-ba): storehouse ('house' + 'receipt' + genitival a(k)).

é-kur: prison ('house' + 'netherworld').

é-lunga(2,3): beerhall; brewery ('house' + 'brewer').

é-mar-uru5[GUR8]: arrow quiver ('house' + 'to immerse' + 'high, deep').

é-me-eš: summer ('houses' + 'are' + 'many').

é-mí: "woman's house" ('house' + 'woman').

é-muhaldim[MU]: bakery, kitchen ('house' + 'baker, cook').

é-NI: treasure-house (?).

é-nígtilde(-gur11[GA]-ra): storehouse, treasure-house ('house' + 'things' [ + 'piled up']; cf., sagtilde-nígtilde-gur11-ra(-ak)).

é-nígtilde-ka: (cf., lú-é-nígtilde-ka).

É-NUN: (cf., agrun).

é-ri-a: (cf., a-ri-a).

é si-ga: a quiet house ('house' + 'silence').

é-sig4: wall ('house' + 'brick'; cf., iz-zi).

é-šag4/šà: house interior; (temple) cella ('house, temple' + 'midst').

é-šu-sì-ma: warehouse ('house' + 'portion' + 'to put, surround' + 'to bind').

é-(gtildeiš)tukul: armory ('house' + 'weapon').

é-tùr: cattle pen ('house' + 'stable').

é-u4-sakar[SAR]: new moon ('house' + 'day' + 'to begin').

é-u4-7: first crescent moon ('house' + 'day 7').

é-u4-15: full moon ('house' + 'day 15').

é-ubur: milking pen ('house' + 'teat').

é-ùr-ra: storehouse ('house' + 'rafter beams').

é-ùru...gíd: to keep watch over a house ('house' + 'watch fire' + 'to reach out, manage').

é-uz-ga: fattening house ('house' + 'goose' + 'milk').

e5-gtildear: brick wall (cf., egtildear).

ég dal-ba-na: a dike that is shared by two watercourses or by two fields ('levee' + 'between').

ég kal-kalag-ga: to reinforce the levees ('levees' + 'to repair, mend' + nominative).

ég sa-dúr-ra: wide levees at the low-lying end of a field which halted and contained the water for irrigating the field ('levees' + 'low-lying end of a field').

ég si-ga: the work of piling up a levee ('levee' + 'to increase, fill').

ég-ég/e ú-sagtilde11-e/a: reinforcement of the levees with cut/bundled plants/reeds ('levees' + 'fascines').

eme-dar: a tool, utensil ('tongue' + 'to slice, smash').

eme...è/e11: to stick out the tongue ('tongue' + 'to send forth').

eme-gilim-ma: confused speech ('tongue' + 'to be twisted, tangled' + nominative).

eme-gir15/gi7: Sumerian language ('tongue' + 'native').

eme-gtildeír: dagger blade ('tongue' + 'dagger').

eme-ha-mun: contrasting speech or languages (e.g., Sumerian and Akkadian) ('tongue' + 'mutually opposing').

(gtildeiš)eme-numun: an agricultural tool ('tongue' + 'seed').

(gtildeiš)eme-sa-du8-a: a tool ('tongue' + 'net' + 'open' + nominative).

eme-si-nu-sá: describes a person 'whose speech is not right' ('tongue' + si...sá, 'to do something in the right way' + 'not').

(gtildeiš)eme-sig: ship plank ('tongue' + 'small').

eme-sig...dug4/du11/e: to slander ('tongue' + 'low; small' + 'to speak').

eme-sig...gu7: to slander ('tongue' + 'low; small' + 'to consume'; cf., inim-sig...gu7).

eme...šub6[ŠID]: to lick with the tongue ('tongue' + 'to lick').

eme-ŠID: lizard ('tongue' + 'to consider, measure').

en-mur: a resin, possibly myrrh ('lord' + 'lungs').

en-na (...-a): until; as long as ...; everywhere ('time, enigmatic background' + nominative).

en-na-bi-šè: until now; until the time ('time' + 'this one' + 'towards').

en-nu(-un/ùgtildea)...dù/ak: to watch; to guard against.

en-nu(-un)(-gtildeá): watch, guardian; watch (as a division of night time); imprisonment; prison.

en-nu-un/ùgtildea...dù/ak: to watch; to guard against.

en-te-en-na(-/ak/): the cold season, wintertime ('time' + 'cold' + genitive).

én-é-nu-ru: introductory formula for exorcism/incantation texts ('enigmatic background' + 'house' + 'image, likeness' + 'to send').

gièn-bar: reed, reeds (cf., ambar, 'reed-bed').

èn-du: song ('time' + 'to walk'; note du12,'to sing').

èn-šè(-àm): until when; how long ('time; until' + terminative postposition, 'up to' [ + enclitic copula]).

èn...tar: to ask (someone: dative); to investigate; to take care of; to handle; to pay attention to, heed ('enigmatic background' + 'to determine, inquire').

èn-tukum-šè: for how long ('time' + 'if' + terminative postposition).

engar-gu4(-ra): ox-ploughman ('farmer' + 'ox').

ér...gtildeá-gtildeá: to set up a lament ('lamentation' + 'to make').

ér...pàd/pà: to burst into tears; to cry, weep ('tears' + 'to show').

ér-ra: mourning, lamentation ('tears' + nominative).

ér...sig7: to lament ('tears' + 'to complain').

ér-šem3,5-ma compositions concerning the gods sung by the gala priests in the Emesal dialect to the accompaniment of a tambourine ('wail' + 'tambourine' + genitive).

ér...šeš2,4/še8-še8: to cry, weep ('tears' + 'to weep').

erin-bábbar: white cedar (wood) ('cedar' + 'white').

érin še-gur10-gur10: harvest workers ('gang of workers' + 'grain' + reduplicated 'sickle; to reap').

ésir-é-a; esir-è-a; ésir-há: asphalt ('bitumen' + 'to go out' + nominative).

eš-bar: decision ('much' + 'to divide'; cf., ka-aš-bar).

eš-bar-kígtilde-du11-ga: pronounced decision ('decision' + 'message, order' + 'to speak' + nominative).

(2,3)-da: ceremony; a type of vessel, goblet ('shrine' + 'with; to be near').

2,3-dam: epithet of a temple of the bride-goddess Inanna; brothel; tavern ('shrine' + 'spouse').

éš-gán: surveyor's rope ('rope' + 'surface measure').

éš-kàr, éš-gàr: task; one man's daily work assignment; the oxen or plows which perform a task; to be assigned for someone's benefit ('measuring tape' + 'something round and upraised').

éš-gíd: surveyor ('measuring rope' + 'long').

éš-kir4/6: nose rope (cf., eškiri) ('rope' + 'muzzle/nose').

èš-èš: a festival (All-Shrines) (reduplicated 'shrine').

itiezen-dAmar-Sin: calendar month 7 at Umma during years 6 - 8 of Amar-Sin.

itiezen-An-na: calendar month 10 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 11 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 11 at Ur during Ur III.

itiezen-dBa-ba6: calendar month 8 at Lagaš during Ur III.

itiezen-dDumu-zi: calendar month 6 at Lagaš during Ur III.

itiezen-dLi9-si4: calendar month 3 at Lagaš during Ur III.

ezen-mah: great festival ('feast' + 'great').

itiezen-mah: calendar month 9 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 10 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 10 at Ur during Ur III.

itiezen-me-ki-gtildeál: calendar month 11 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 12 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 12 at Ur during Ur III.

itiezen-dNin-a-zu: calendar month 5 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 6 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 6 at Ur during Ur III.

itiezen-dŠu-dEN.ZU(Sin): calendar month 8 at Drehem in year Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 9 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3.

itiezen-dŠul-gi: calendar month 7 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 8 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 8 at Ur during Ur III; calendar month 7 at Lagaš during Ur III; calendar month 10 at Umma after year Šulgi 30.

Copyright © 1996-1999 John Alan Halloran, Los Angeles, California. All Rights Reserved.
Last modified on August 11, 1999.