ba: n., share, portion; rations, wages [BA archaic frequency: 523].
v., to give; to divide, apportion, distribute; to pay (interchanges with bar).
conjugation prefix, used when the subject is inanimate and/or non-agentive (intransitive).
possessive or demonstrative suffix -bi plus nominative -a.
(ku6)ba: a shelled creature (such as a turtle or a snail); a scraping tool.
bà: liver; liver model; omen.
ba4: Emesal dialect, cf., á, 'house'.
ba7: (cf., bar).
be: (cf., bad).
bi, bé: v., to diminish, lessen; to speak, say (accusative infix b 3rd pers. sing. neuter + e 'to speak'); to murmer, chirp, twitter, buzz, hum, howl, cry; mention (cf., biz; bi[z]) [KA archaic frequency: 261; concatenates 4 sign variants].
poss. suffix, 'its' applies to inanimate (things and animals) and collective objects.
demonstrative suffix, this (one), that (one) - in this sense can occur with animates.
adv., adverbial force suffix.
conjugation prefix, differentiates the semantic meaning of certain verbs.
bí: (cf., i-bí).
bi6 [BA]: to tear; to tear off (with -ta-).
bi7: (cf., bìd).
bu(3,6): (cf., bur12; bul) [BU: archaic frequency: 393; concatenation of 2 sign variants].
bu5: to rush around (cf., bul).
da: n., arm; side; nearness (to someone) [DA archaic frequency: 227; concatenation of 4 sign variants].
v., to hold; to be near; to protect.
prep., comitative suffix, 'with'; copula, 'and' (mainly in Sargonic date texts).
da5: (cf., dab6).
dé: to pour (often with -ni-); to water; to increase, be full; to shape, form; to instruct; to sink (for other meanings - cf., de6,2; ég; gù...dé).
dè: ashes; marû form suffix - often indicates a present participle to be translated by English -ing or connotes future sense. Used like the terminative postposition -è after verbal phrases to indicate intent or goal.
de5, di5 [RI]: to advise; to remove (earth clods) (reduplicated).
de6,2, e6: to bring, carry (-i- or -ta- denote direction); to continue on (singular hamtu, cf., tumu2,3, lah4; Emesal ga(14)).
di: n., lawsuit, case; judgment, decision, verdict; sentence [DI archaic frequency: 99].
v., to judge, decide; to conduct oneself; to go; to escape (di-dé used as non-finite marû form of dug4, 'to speak').
di4: (cf., tur).
du: to walk; to go; to come (sing. marû, cf., in, re7, súb) [DU archaic frequency: 299].
dú: (cf., tud).
dù('), ú: n., work; totality.
v., to build, make; to mould, cast; to erect something on the ground; to raise up; to set up; to plant; to fasten, apply (dù-e in marû).
du5: (cf., sug5)
du6: (cf., dul(6)).
du7: to be finished, complete; to be suitable, fitting; to be necessary; to butt, gore, toss (reduplication class?) (regularly followed by rá) [DU7 archaic frequency: 7].
du8: (cf., duh).
du9: (cf., dun5).
du10: (cf., dùg).
du11: (cf., dug4).
du12: (cf., tuku).
du14: quarrel, struggle, fight.
ga: n., milk (chamber + water) [GA archaic frequency: 245; concatenation of 3 sign variants].
conjugation prefix, 'also'; 'and then'.
modal prefix, cohortative, used with hamtu forms.
ga6: (cf., gùr).
gi: reed; length measure, reed = 6 cubits = 3 meters (circular + to sprout) [GI archaic frequency: 484].
gi(n), ge(n): v., to act justly; to stabilize, strengthen; to confirm; to establish something as the property of someone (dative) (loanword from Semitic, Orel & Stolbova #1403, *ka'Vn- 'be true', Akkadian kânu; cf., in, en).
adj., just; firm; fixed; reliable, trustworthy.
gi(4): to surround, besiege; to lock up (circle + to descend into).
gi(17): n., young man (small and thin like a reed).
gí, gé: reed mat.
gi4, ge4: to return, come back; to send (back) (with -i-); to reject, dislike; to restore; to answer (person to whom answer is given resumed by dative prefix, and with -ni-) (circular motion + to go out, send) [GI4 archaic frequency: 37; concatenation of 3 sign variants].
gi7: (cf., gir15).
gi9, ge9: (cf., gir10).
gi17: (cf., gig).
gi25[DUGUD]: (cf., gíg).
gu: string, thread; wool yarn; flax; hemp; snare; net; orig. word for needle (circular + grass-like) [GU archaic frequency: 53].
gú: neck; nape; river bank; side; other side; edge; front; land; pulse, chick pea (for 'land, district' cf., gún; for 'load; talent' cf., gun; gún, gú) (circular + u5, 'on top of'; cf., Orel & Stolbova #982, *gun- "occiput, neck, nape") [GU2 archaic frequency: 34].
gu2,4: (cf., gud(2)).
gù: n., noise, sound; voice.
v., to exclaim; to utter a cry (said of an animal) (throat + u(3,4,8), 'cries, screams').
gu7, kú: n., food, sustenance; fodder; angle [GU7 archaic frequency: 236].
v., to eat, swallow, consume, use; to eat up, finish off; to feed, nurse, benefit (with -ni-) (throat + ú, 'food').
á: basket; house; stable (cf., ar) [GA2 archaic frequency: 125; concatenation of 5 sign variants].
á: (cf., ál, ar, e26 and ma(3)).
e: (cf., me).
e6: (cf., gíg).
e26, á: I, myself; my.
i6: (cf., gíg).
u10: my, mine.
ha: precative and affirmative verbal prefix: may; let; indeed.
*ha: fish (not the usual word for fish, but the fish sign may get its syllabic reading of HA from *h 'many' + a 'water' = 'fish', an alternative to the usual ku6, kua) [KU6 archaic frequency: 282; concatenates 3 sign variants].
há, hi-a: numerous; diverse; assorted; mixed.
hà, hù, a6, u: ten (usually written: u).
he, hi: to mix [HI archaic frequency: 291].
he(2): abundance; abundant.
hé: precative and affirmative verbal prefix (same as ha).
hu: bird (earlier word than muen).
ia2,7,9, í: five.
ìa, ì: n., oil, fat, cream.
impersonal verbal conjugation prefix, indicates distance from speaker.
ia4, i4: pebble, counter.
ka: mouth [KA archaic frequency: 108; concatenates 2 sign variants].
ka: in late usage the difference between a rough measuring and a final measuring of a quantity of grain.
ká: gate [? KA2 archaic frequency: 11; concatenates 4 sign variants].
ka9: (cf., kas7 and ní-kas7/ka9).
-ke4: often occurs at the end of a genitival compound which functions as the actor or agent of the sentence (ak, genitival suffix 'of', + e, ergative agent marker).
ki: n., earth; place; area; location; ground; grain ('base' + 'to rise, sprout') [KI archaic frequency: 386; concatenates 2 sign variants].
prep., where; wherever, whenever; behind.
kì: (cf., kìd).
ku: to base, found, build; to lie down (reduplication class) [KU archaic frequency: 64; concatenates 3 sign variants].
kú: (cf., gu7).
kù: (cf., kug).
ku4: (cf., kur9).
ku5: (cf., kud).
ku6, kua: fish (kú, 'food', + a, 'water') [KU6 archaic frequency: 282; concatenates 3 sign variants].
ku7: (cf., kuru).
ku10: (cf., gíg).
la: abundance, luxury, wealth; youthful freshness and beauty; bliss, happiness; wish, desire [LA archaic frequency: 20; concatenates 4 sign variants].
lá: to penetrate, pierce, force a way into (in order to see); to know; to look after; to have a beard (cf. also, lal) [LA2 archaic frequency: 57].
(i)li: juniper/cedar tree [LI archaic frequency: 14].
lí: true measure; fine oil.
li9: to glisten, shine.
lu: n., many, much; man, men, people; sheep.
v., to be/make numerous, abundant; to multiply; to mix; to graze, pasture (reduplication class [?]) (cf., lug).
lú: grown man; male; human being; someone, anyone, no one; gentleman [LU2 archaic frequency: 85].
lù: to disturb, agitate, trouble; to fluster, embarrass; to stir, blend.
lu5: (cf., lub, lul).
ma: to bind (Emesal dialect for ál; á) [MA archaic frequency: 250].
ma(3); á: to go (Akk. alaaku).
(i)má: boat [MA2 archaic frequency: 6].
mà: (Emesal dialect for á-e).
ma4: to leave, depart, go out (cf., mud6).
ma5: (cf., mù).
me, mì; e: n., function, office, responsibility; ideal norm; the phenomenal area of a deity's power; divine decree, oracle; cult [ME archaic frequency: 363; concatenates 2 sign variants].
v., to be; the Sumerian copula; to say, tell.
poss. suffix, our.
mé: (cf., gíg).
me3,6,7,9: battle [ME3 archaic frequency: 4].
me6: to act, behave.
mi: (cf., gíg).
mí[SAL]: n., woman; female (this pronunciation of the sign found in compound words and verbs or in enclitic or proclitic position, Hallo & van Dijk, p. 85) (cf. also, mu10, munus) (compounds are more likely to preserve an older word) [SAL archaic frequency: 435].
mu: n., name; word; year; line on a tablet, entry; oath (cf., u10) [MU archaic frequency: 99].
v., to name, speak (cf., mug).
conjugation prefix, suggests involvement by speaker, used especially before dative infixes, preferred for animate and agentive subjects.
mú: (cf., mud6).
mù, ma5[KA×È]: to mill, grind; to burn (reduplication class).
mu4: (cf., mur10).
mu5: well-formed, beautiful; plump, fattened.
mu7[KA×LI]: to shout, scream, roar; exorcism ?.
mu10[SAL]: woman; female (cf. also, mí, munus) [SAL archaic frequency: 435].
na: n., human being; incense [NA archaic frequency: 105; concatenates 3 sign variants].
modal prefix, emphatic in past tense; prohibitive in present/future tense.
ná, nú: (cf., nud).
na4; na: pebble, rock, ordinary stone; stone weight; token; hailstone.
na5: chest, box.
ne(-e), ne.en: this (one); that (one); demonstrative affix [NE archaic frequency: 303; concatenation of 4 sign variants].
nè; ní: strength, vigor, violence; forces, host.
ni; na: he, she; that one (human animate pronoun or possessive suffix) [NI archaic frequency: 263; concatenation of 2 sign variants].
ní: self; body; one's own [NI2 archaic frequency: 34].
ní; ne4: fear; respect; frightfulness; awe.
nì: (cf., ní).
ni9: (cf., nìin).
nu: n., image, likeness, picture, figurine, statue [NU archaic frequency: 101].
adj. & adv., no, not; without; negative.
pron., a pronominal prefix in a compound noun describing a person; or a phonetic writing for lú.
nu11[IR]: light; fire, lamp; alabaster [NU11 archaic frequency: 32].
(i)pa: leaf, bud, sprout; branch; wing; feather [PA archaic frequency: 378; concatenation of 2 sign variants].
pà: (cf., pàd).
pa4,5,6(-r): irrigation ditch, small canal, dike.
pú: well, cistern, pool, fountain; depth [PU2 archaic frequency: 37].
ra(-g/h): n., inundation [RA archaic frequency: 25].
v., to strike, stab, slay; to stir; to impress, stamp, or roll (a seal into clay); to branch out (from the side of a canal); to flood, overflow; to measure; to pack, haul, or throw away (with -ta-).
prep., dative suffix - for - denotes the animate being towards whom or in favor of whom an action is done.
rá: (cf., re7).
rà: (cf., ara4).
re7; ri6, rá, ir10; e-re7; er, ir: to accompany, lead; to bear; to go; to drive along or away; to stir, mix (plural hamtu e.re7.er; cf., du, in, súb).
ri: v., to throw, cast; to place, pour, put into; to place upon or against (with -i-); to be located; to touch; to moor a boat; to break open; to expel, remove, throw away, sweep away (with -ta-); to emit; to beget; to blow (said of a storm); to inundate; to exchange; to take; to gather, glean; to plan something (ri is hamtu form, ri-g is marû form, ri-ri-g is plural; cf., rig) [RI archaic frequency: 1].
demonstrative affix, that, those; regarding that (where the reference is to something outside the view of the speaker - over yonder).
RI: calendar month 5 at Umma during Ur III.
ru: n., present, gift [RU archaic frequency: 120].
v., to blow; to give; to send (cf., rúg).
rú: (cf., dù).
rù: to be equal in size or rank.
ru5: to send forth shoots, buds, or blossoms; to butt; to gore.
sa: n., sinew, tendon; cord; net; mat; bundle; string of a musical instrument [SA archaic frequency: 54; concatenates 2 sign variants].
v., to roast (barley) (cf., si; sa).
sá: n., advice.
v., to approach or equal in value; to compare with; to compete (with -da-).
sa4: to name; to call by name.
sa5: n., red ocher.
adj., red, red-brown.
sa6: (cf., sag9).
sa10: to be equivalent; to buy (cf., sám).
sa12: (cf., sa).
si: n., horn(s); antenna(e); line; ray(s); light; plowland (cf., sig5) [SI archaic frequency: 417].
v., to stand upright; to be straight; to be in order; to become completely still.
adj., regular, normal.
si; su; sa; sa5: v., to fill up; to fill with (with -da-); to survey a field; to inundate; to be full; to be sufficient, enough; to increase; to compensate, repay, replace; to grow weak (probably reduplication class) (cf., sum, sug6, rúg, sig, sig5).
adj., suitable, fit.
sì, sè: (cf., sig10).
si4, su4, sa11: red [SI4 archaic frequency: 116; concatenates 5 sign variants].
si14: a small pot.
su: n., body; flesh; skin; animal hide; relatives; substitute (as verb, cf., si; sug6 or rúg) [SU archaic frequency: 188; concatenates 2 sign variants].
su(3): (cf., sud, sug4) [SU3 archaic frequency: 6].
sú: (cf., zu)
su4: to grow; to multiply.
su5: (cf., suh5).
su6: (cf., sun4).
su7: (cf., sug8).
su8: (cf., súg, súb).
su9; a4: n., red ocher.
v., to mourn, grieve.
su11: (cf., zú).
su13: (cf., sud4).
sux (TAG): to spread (cf., sud).
a: to dry up [A archaic frequency: 97].
à: (cf., ag4).
a4, e13: (cf., su9).
a5: to cut, break (reeds).
a6: (cf., sag9).
e: n., barley; grain; a small length measure, barleycorn = 1/6 finger = 1/30 cubit = 1.67 centimeter in Presarg.-OB period; as a surface area measure = 432 square linear barleycorns = 12 square fingers; as a volume measure = 1/180 gín = 1/3 gín-tur = 1 2/3 sìla = 360 cubic fingers = 1/10800 sar = approx. 1.667 liters; 1/180 of a gín or shekel of silver = ca. 0.0463 grams (cf., e-ga/ge) [E archaic frequency: 639; concatenates 3 sign variants].
demonstrative affix, may indicate 'there' within the view of the speaker.
è: n., portion [E3 archaic frequency: 152].
prep., to, unto, as far as, up to; as regards, concerning; because of, for the sake of; until (terminative suffix and in Old Sumerian period terminative prefix).
e4: (cf., sed).
e6: (cf., e6).
e7: (cf., è).
e8: (cf., é).
e10: excrement, dung.
e17: (cf., sed4).
e29[LÚ×KÁR, LÚ-KÁR]: (cf., aa).
i: contrapunctive modal prefix; terminative prefix after Old Sumerian period (cf., è).
u: n., hand; share, portion, bundle; strength; control [U archaic frequency: 360].
v., to pour.
ú: (cf., ú).
u4(-g): to stand; to be deployed, set up (plural, reduplication class).
u4: (cf., u).
u12: (cf., ùde).
ta, dá: n., nature, character [TA archaic frequency: 34; concatenates 6 sign variants].
prep., from; to; for; by means of (ablative-instrumental noun suffix and verbal prefix; as a noun suffix can be a locative with remote deixis, as in an-ta and ki-ta).
ta6: (cf., taka4).
te, de4: n., cheek, chin (cf., temen) [TE archaic frequency: 199].
te, de4; ti: v., to approach, meet (someone: dative); to attack, assault; to be frightened (alternating class, hamtu stem; cf., te-e26).
tè: an alkaline plant (?); soapwort (?); cardamon (cf., naa).
te8[Á]muen: bearded vulture.
ti: side, rib; arrow (cf., te, dih, and tìl) [TI archaic frequency: 105; concatenates 2 sign variants].
tu: to interfere (cf., tud and tur5) [TU archaic frequency: 54; concatenates 3 sign variants].
tumuen: (cf., tum12muen).
tú: (cf., tam).
tu2,3: (cf., tumu2,3).
tu5,17: n., bath.
v., to wash, bathe; to pour; to make libation (probably reduplication class).
tu6: exorcism; conjuration; exorcistic formula.
tu7: soup; soup pitcher.
tu9: (cf., túg).
tu10,11: (cf., dun).
tu15: (cf., tumu).
za: you (singular).
za: to make noise (occurs as the verb in compounds with repetitive, onomatopoeic syllables symbolizing a repeated monotonous noise or motion (Krebernik, Beschwörungen, p. 70, summarizes the different compounds that occur in ED IIIB texts).
za(2): precious stone, gemstone; bead; hailstone; pit; kernel [ZA archaic frequency: 9].
zà: (cf., zag).
zé[ZÍ]: to cut; to shear, cut hair; to pluck (Emesal dialect for dùg, cf., zil; zé-er).
zi: n., breathing; breath (of life); throat; soul (cf., zid, zìg) [ZI archaic frequency: 116; concatenates 3 sign variants].
v., (with -r Auslaut) to destroy; to annihilate.
zí: stench; bile; bitter.
zì: (cf., zíd).
zu, sú: n., wisdom, knowledge.
v., to know; to understand; to inform, teach (in marû reduplicated form); to learn from someone (with -da-); to recognize someone (with -da-); to be experienced, qualified.
adj., your (as suffix).
zú, su11[KA]: tooth, teeth; prong; thorn; blade; ivory; flint, chert; obsidian; natural glass.
zu5: (cf., azu).
Copyright © 1996-1999 John Alan Halloran, Los Angeles, California. All Rights Reserved.
Last modified on August 9, 1999.