(gtildeiš)sa-bí-tum: a musical instrument (Akk. sabiitu 'gazelle').

sa-šè...DU: to roast ('to roast (barley)' + 'for the sake of' + 'to go').

(gtildeiš)sa-du8(-a): a tool ('net, bundle; roasting' + 'residue' + nominative).

sa-dúr(-ra); ŠEŠ-dúr-rá/a: low-lying end of a farmer's field ('?' + 'buttocks').

sa-gaz; sagtilde-gaz: highway robber ('head' + 'to smash').

sa-gaz...aka: to rob (someone: dative infix); to commit murder ('robber' + 'to do').

sa...gi4: to prepare ('mat' + 'to restore' ?).

sa-hab: (metathesis of zipah).

sa-hir: net; bundle (e.g., of straw) ('net' + 'produce, yield').

sa-KU: arms (rare meaning; cf., sa-dúr) ('sinew, tendon' + 'to build ?').

sa...lal/lá: to stretch the net; to sweep; to tie with cords ('net' + 'to stretch').

sa-li: a type of lyre ('string' + 'true measure').

sa-ma(-a)-ná: skin disease; grain diseases such as leaf rust (Akk. samaanu 'skin disease').

sa-par4; si-par4: a type of net ('net'/'to fill' + 'to stretch out').

sa-sa: roasting, burning; reddish (reduplicated 'to roast (barley)').

sa-šú-uš-gal: huge net ('cord, net' + šúš/šú, 'to cover' + 'big').

sa-tu: mountain; upper parts (Akk. šadû(m) I, 'mountain(s)').

sa-ZI-ZI-a; sa-ZI-ZI-ŠÈ: a trawling (?) net ('net' + 'to take out, extract' + locative or terminative suffix).

sá[DI]...DI: to evaluate ('value' + 'to judge').

sá-dug4/du11: a capacity measure, = 24 sìla in Presargonic Girsu and 40 sìla starting with Akkad period; regular "tithe" or "offering" important to the temple economy ('to equal in value' + 'to effect').

sá...dug4/du11/e: to reach, arrive, overwhelm (often with -ni-); to provide regular offerings (reduplication class) ('to equal in value' + 'to effect').

sá-gtildear: adviser, counselor ('guidance' + 'to halt; to turn round').

sá-nigtildein(2): part of a harness (?) ('guidance' + 'to halt; to turn round').

sá-pa: part of a harness (?) ('guidance' + 'branch; wing').

sá...sè(-g/k): to plot; to plan ('advice' + 'to apply; to compare').

sa12-du5: read sa12-sug5 ?, from the Akkadian form šassukkum).

sa12-sug5; sa12-su5[SAgtildcap-KU]; sá-sug5: land register manager; registrar of deeds; librarian ('head' + 'to lay the warp of the land' ?, also read sa12-du5).

sa12-ti-umki: the eastern mountains.

sag9-hul: both good and bad ('good' + 'bad').

sagtilde-a-ki-ta: lower end of a field ('head' + 'water' + 'to be lower' + nominative).

sagtilde...aka: to care ('head' + 'to do').

sagtilde-kešda/kéš...aka: to pay attention (with -ši-); to admonish ('head' + 'to fasten' + 'to do', cf., gtildeizzal...aka).

sagtilde šu...aka: to enslave ('slave' + 'to take captive').

sagtilde-an-na: upper end of a field ('head' + 'to be high' + nominative).

sagtilde-apin(-na): plow guide ('head' + 'plow' + genitive).

sagtilde...bala: to shake the head ('head' + 'to turn').

sagtilde...bul: to toss or shake the head ('head' + 'to blow', cf., sagtilde...bala).

sagtilde-du: head ('head' + 'to walk').

sagtilde-du nu-tuku: idiot, a term of derision ('head' + 'not' + 'to have').

sagtilde-dù: triangle ('head' + 'shape').

sagtilde-dub: regular worker ('head' + 'tablet-recorded').

sagtilde...dúb: to smash the head (often with -da-) ('head' + 'to knock down').

SAgtildcap-DÙN: (cf., sa12-du5, šassuk).

sagtilde-èn-tar: overseer; guardian ('head' + 'to investigate; to take care of, handle').

sagtilde-èn...tar: to notice ('head' + 'to investigate').

sagtilde-gaz...aka: to slay ('head' + 'smash' + 'to do'; cf., sa-gaz).

sagtilde...gi4: to topple; to close ('head' + 'to send back').

sagtilde...gíd: (cf., sagtilde-ki...gíd).

sagtilde-gú-ne(-/ak/): cupbearer (loan from Akk. šaaqû).

sagtilde...gtildear/gtildeá-gtildeá: to proceed; to oppose (someone/something: -da-) ('the head' + 'to set').

sagtilde-sig...gtildear: to bend or lower one's head (before someone/something: -ši-) ('head' + 'small, weak' + 'to place').

sagtilde-gtildei6(-ga): black-headed people; Sumerians ('head' + 'black' + nominative; cf., dumu-gir15/gi7 and ki-en-gir15/gi7(-r); ki-en-gi(-r)).

sagtilde-gtildeiš...ra: to kill, murder ('head' + 'wood tool' + 'to strike').

sagtilde...ha-za: to attach securely ('head' + 'to hold, grasp, retain').

sagtilde (an-šè)...íl: to lift the head (towards heaven); to raise up ('head' ( + 'unto heaven') + 'to lift up').

sagtilde-kal-(l): foremost; leader ('head' + 'excellent').

sagtilde...kal: to choose, prefer; to make foremost, prominent ('head' + 'to value').

sagtilde...kéš: to attend to; to watch, guard ('head' + 'to bind').

kušsagtilde-kéš: a thong connecting the yoke to the plow ('head' + 'to bind').

sagtilde-ki: forehead ('head, point' + 'place').

sagtilde-ki...gíd: to get angry (with someone: -da-) ('forehead' + 'to lengthen').

sagtilde-ki-gud: trapezoid ('head, point' + 'location' + 'bulky like an ox').

SAgtildcap-KU: (cf., sa12-su5).

(gtildeiš)sagtilde-kul: lock ('head' + 'thick').

sagtilde-kur-ra: a foreign slave ('slave' + 'foreign land' + genitive).

ku6sagtilde-kúr[PAB]: a fish ('head' + 'strange').

sagtilde-(gtildeiš)má: bow of a boat ('head' + 'boat').

sagtilde-men: head-crown (cf., men-sagtilde).

sagtilde-mí: female slave ('head; slave' + 'female').

sagtilde-nitah: male slave; (grown) man ('head; slave' + 'male').

sagtilde-nígtilde-gur11[GA]-ra(-ak): capital on hand ('in front, at first' + 'what' + 'piled up' [ + genitive]; sagtilde and 'capital' refer to the 'head' of an accounting column in different languages).

sagtilde-rib: (cf., sagtilde-kal-(l)).

sagtilde-rig7: gift; dowry.

sagtilde/sa12...rig7: to donate, bestow, grant, give as a present (with -ni- and -ri-) ('present, gift' + 'to deed, grant', where these meanings derive by back-formation from this compound which derives from Akkadian šaraakum).

sagtilde...sá: to vie with (with -da-) ('head' + 'to compare').

sagtilde...sal-la: to be silly (?) ('head' + 'to belittle').

sagtilde...sar: to shave the head ('head' + 'to crop ?').

sagtilde...sè/sì-(g): to entrust; to take care of; to pay attention ('head' + 'to apply; to surround').

sagtilde-sig-ga: head-covering ('head' + 'small' + nominative).

sagtilde...sìg: to tremble; to move the head from side to side (with -da-) ('head' + 'to shake').

SAgtildcap-SUG5: (cf., sa12-sug5, šassuk).

sagtilde...sum: to hurry towards ('head' + 'to give').

sagtilde-sum-sikil: bulb of garlic ('head' + 'garlic').

sagtilde-šu4: cap ('head' + 'to cover').

sagtilde...túm: to defame ('first position' + 'to carry away').

sagtilde ú-a...šub: to hide ('head' + 'in the grass' + 'to drop').

sagtilde-ur-sagtilde: eunuch; royal attendant ('head or slave' + 'warrior').

sagtilde-ús: constant; to be available; to care for something's maintenance ('point' + 'to be moored to').

gtilde...dug4/du11/e: to scatter (with -da- or -ta-) ('scattered' + 'to effect').

sahar...dub: to raise a cloud of dust ('dust' + 'to shake, agitate').

sahar(-da)...gi4: to turn into dust; euphemism for 'to die' ('dust' + 'to turn, return').

sahar-gtildear-ra: volume ('earth' + 'to accumulate' + nominative) (cf., ki-lá).

sahar si-ga: to pile up earth; earth piling ('earth, silt' + 'to fill, increase' + nominative).

sahar...su(3): to cover with dust or silt (redup. class) ('dust, silt' + 'to sprinkle, immerse').

sahar šu-bal-a: to transport earth ('earth, silt' + 'hand' + 'to transfer, deliver' + nominative).

sahar šu-ti-a: to collect earth ('earth' + 'to receive' + nominative).

sahar zi-ga: to remove earth or silt; earth moving ('earth, silt' + 'to tear out, deduct' + nominative).

sar-KA×SAR-KA×SAR: a vegetable.

SI.A: (cf., dirig or (gi)ušub).

si-BÀD-na: top of the sky ('straight up' + 'to ascend' + nominative).

si-ga: n., silence (cf., sig5).

si-ga/ge: v., to pile or fill up (e.g., earth for a levee or temple foundation).

si-ga: adj., quiet; weak (cf., sig5 and sig).

si-ga kala-ga: weak and strong points.

si-gal: croissant ('horn-shaped' + 'large').

(gtildeiš)si-gtildear: bolt ('horn; straight' + 'form, appearance').

si-ì-tum: balance owing carried forward from an earlier account (from Akkadian šiaatum, 'to leave behind', šittu, 'remainder, deficit') (cf., lá-ìa[NI]).

si-ig; si(-g): v., to place into the ground; to calm or put out a fire; to strike down, level; to silence.

     adj., silent; weak (cf., sig5 and sig).

si-il: to split; to tear apart; to go away, absent oneself (cf., sila).

(urudu)si-im: kettledrum(s) ? ('to fill' + 'wind').

si-im-si-im...aka: to sniff (reduplicated 'to fill' + 'wind' + 'to do'; cf., šim-im, 'an aromatic substance').

si-li-ig: (cf., šilig, silig).

si-mú: to have horns; horned [can indicate a 'male' animal if only the male sex grows horns] ('horns' + 'to sprout, appear').

si-mùš: shining horns; light rays ('horns; rays' + 'to glisten, shine').

si-par4: (cf., sa-par4).

si-sá: right; legal ('straightness' + 'to equal').

si...sá: to do something in the right way; to make straight; to put in order; to tune (an instrument); to prepare, get ready; to yoke (often with -ni- or bi-) (redupl. class) ('straightness' + 'to equal').

si...si-sá: to assemble in order, to march in line.

si-si-ig: whirlwind (reduplicated sìg, 'to demolish, flatten').

si-šuš-nu: a sea creature ('antennae' + 'to go down' + 'do not').

si4-lum: a garden plant ('reddish' + 'to grow luxuriantly').

sig-sig: narrow (reduplicated 'small').

sig...gtildear: to prostrate onself ('low' + 'to set').

síg-ba: wool allotment, ration ('hair; wool' + 'share, rations').

síg-bar: loosely hanging hair ('hair' + 'to uncover, expose').

síg-babbar: white wool ('hair; wool' + 'white').

síg ga-zum-aka(-a): carded wool.

síg...peš5: to card wool ('hair, wool' + 'to comb and clean').

síg-sur(-ra): spun wool ('hair; wool' + 'to spray out, expel' + nominative).

síg-ud5: goat's hair ('hair' + 'she-goat').

sìg...dug4/du11/e: to be destroyed ('stroke, blow' + 'to apply').

sìg-sìg: whirlwind (reduplicated sìg, 'to demolish, flatten').

sig4-áb: half-brick ('brick' + 'cow' = 'cow pat').

sig4-al-ur5-ra: kiln-burnt brick(s) (cf., ízi-ur5, 'coal').

sig4-anše...gub: to stack a brick pile ('brick' + 'donkey' + 'to set').

sig4-ba: turtle shell (?) ('brick; wall' + 'turtle').

sig4-báhar(-ra): baked brick (?) or potter's brick(?) ('brick' + 'potter' + genitive).

itisig4-ga: calendar month 3 at Nippur during Ur III.

itisig4-(gtildeiš)ì-šub-ba-gtildear: calendar month 2 at Umma during Ur III.

sig4; sig14; še25; še26...gi4: to resound; to shout; to howl (reduplication class) ('walls' + 'to answer').

sig4-gi4-a: roaring ('to resound' + nominative).

sig7-sig7: to be beautiful (reduplicated 'to be beautiful, pleasing').

sig14[KA×LI]..gi4: (cf., sig4...gi4).

sila-kúr...dab5/díb: to take a different way ('street' + 'different' + 'to take'/'to traverse').

sìla-bàn-da: small sìla-vessel ('liter' + 'junior').

sila4-ga-sub-ba: milk suckling lamb ('lamb' + 'milk' + 'to suck' + nominative).

sila4-gub: offspring (children or of flocks); mature young of animals ('lambs' + 'to stand').

sila4-nim: early spring lamb ('lamb' + 'early').

sila4-nitah: lamb buck ('lamb' + 'male').

silim...dug4/du11/di/e: to greet, say "Hello" ('health' + 'to speak').

silim-šè gù...dé: to greet, say "Hello" ('health' + 'regarding' + 'to call, say').

silim...sum: to greet, say "Hello" ('greeting' + 'to give').

sipad-ama-[ŠA.]GAN: shepherd of mother animals ('shepherd' + 'mother' + 'to bring forth').

sipad-amar-ru-ga: shepherd of brought back (?) ('shepherd' + 'young ones' + rúg, 'to restore' + genitive).

sipad-udu-siki-ka: shepherd of wool sheep ('shepherd' + 'sheep' + 'wool' + double genitive).

siskur...e: to say a prayer [often introduces direct, quoted speech in the texts] ('prayer' + 'to speak').

su-a: cat (cf., sug8).

su-búru: quicksand, quagmire ('to immerse' + 'to dissolve, loosen').

su-din(-dal)mušen: bat ('body' + 'to cure'; Akk. s/šu(t)tinnu).

su-din: butterfly; part of a wagon or plough (cf., (gtildeiš)šudun).

su-gu7/kú: skin disease ('flesh, skin' + 'to eat, consume').

su(3)-hé[GAN]: a type of copper; slag; borax (?) powder ('to stretch' + 'to support').

su-lá-a: salted or cured meat ('flesh' + 'to hang' + nominative).

su-lim: awesome radiance, splendor (Akk. šalummatu, šalummu).

su(11)-lum...mar: to disgrace, treat with contempt, mock ('body' + 'manure' + 'to coat, apply').

su-ub: (cf., sub).

su-zìg/zi...ri: to scare ('gooseflesh' + 'to put into').

su...zìg/zi: to have/give gooseflesh; to be afraid of (with -da-) ('flesh' + zìg, zi, 'to stand up, rise').

su-zi: terror.

su(3)-ud: (cf., sud).

sù-ga: deceitful(ly) (cf., sug4).

sù(-ud)-ágtildea: diamond ?; electrum ?; brass ? ('to be lasting; to rejoice' + 'to measure, check').

sù-rá: far-reaching ('far away' + 'to go'/indicator of rwedge phoneme in sud).

su6-nam-ti-la: beard of life ('beard' + 'life' + genitive).

su6-za-gìn(-na): lapis lazuli (-colored) beard; clean beard ('beard' + 'lapis lazuli; clean' + genitive; might be some wordplay with Akk. ziqnu, 'beard').

gisu7-su7: a basket (reduplicated 'threshing floor').

su11...li9-li9: (cf., zú...li9-li9).

su11-lum: (cf., zú-lum(-ma)).

SUD-la: a quality of the ground ('to sprinkle, immerse' + 'freshness').

sug-zag-gi4...gu7: to destroy ('swamp' + 'territory' + 'to surround' + 'to finish off').

suh-kešda: ornament ('carefully chosen' + 'to fasten').

sukkal-mah: vizier, prime minister, 'minister of the interior' ('minister' + 'grand').

sum-GUD: a type of onion ('onion' + 'robust like a bull').

sum-sag9: a type of onion ('onion' + 'good, pleasing').

sum-sikil: garlic ('onion' + 'pure, concentrated').

sum-tab-ba: binding double sheaf ('to give' + 'double' + nominative).

sum-za-ha-ti/din: (cf., za-ha-ti/din).

sún-si-mú: horned (or male) aurochs cow ('aurochs cow' + 'horned').

ša-ga-ru: a kind of copper.

ša-ra: syllabic spelling for šár-ra, 'numerous'.

ša-ra(-g): to dry up, wither ('to dry up' + 'inundation').

ša-ra-ab-du: (cf., šár-ra-ab-du).

ŠÀ.ÁB: creation ('womb' + 'cow').

šà-a-bar-ra: bastard ('womb' + locative or 'seed' + 'to be foreign' + nominative).

šà...bala: to breed ('womb' + 'to revolve, deliver').

šà-bal-bal: descendant, offspring ('womb' + reduplicated 'to revolve, deliver').

ku6šà-bar: cleaned fish ('intestines' + 'to cut open, remove').

šà-bi-ta: therefrom; deducted from the state-bestowed capital debt (usually precedes account of credit transactions followed by zi-ga[-àm]) ('contents' + 'its' + 'from').

šà-da: voluntarily ('heart' + 'with').

šà...dab5: to be angry ('heart, stomach' + 'to grasp, clench').

šà...dar: to be afraid ('stomach' + 'to slice', cf., ní...dar).

šà-digtildeir-re-e-ne: the (secret) will of the gods ('interior; will' + 'gods').

šà...diri: to overeat ('stomach' + 'to exceed').

šà-dub-didli: recorded on an individual tablet ('contents' + 'tablet' + 'separate, individual').

šà-dùg: a term for young animals ('heart' + 'sweet').

šà-ga-dù: belt ('stomach' + nominative + 'to mould, shape').

šà-gada-lal: linen-clad ('midst' + 'linen' + 'to drape'; cf., šà-lá-lá).

šà-gal: food, fodder, sustenance ('stomach' + 'enlarge').

šà-gi-na: true heart; one's nature ('heart' + 'to be firm, true' + nominative).

šà-gi8[IGI]-guru6/7: a voluntary offering ('heart' + 'eyes' + 'to shine, be bright; grain heap').

šà-gig-ga: an aching heart ('heart' + 'to be sick, painful' + nominative).

šà-šè...gíd: to bear in mind ('heart' + 'concerning' + 'to measure').

šà(-ge)...guru7: all that one wants ('heart, stomach' ( + 'to the') + 'a large silo').

šà-gtildeál: what is in one's heart, i.e., the heart's desire ('heart' + 'to dwell').

šà-gtildear: hunger ('stomach' + 'to deposit', cf., šagtildear).

šà-gtildear...tuku: to be hungry ('hunger' + 'to have').

šà...hugtilde: to pacify; to calm down the heart ('heart' + 'to rest').

šà-hul...dím: to grieve ('heart' + 'evil' + 'to make').

šà-hul-gig: hatred ('heart' + 'evil' + 'to be sick, painful').

šà-húl-la: delight ('heart' + 'to rejoice' + nominative).

šà-húl-la...dirig: to be overflowing with joy ('delight' + 'to exceed').

šà-íb-ba(-/ak/): anger ('midst' + 'loins' + genitive).

šà-ka-tab: hunger ('stomach' + 'mouth' + 'to tremble; to make haste').

šà-ki-ágtildea: a loving heart ('heart' + 'to love' + nominative).

šà(-ge)...kúr/kár: to change one's mind ('heart, will, mood' + ergative agent marker + 'to change').

šà...kúš(-ù): to rest the heart; to make love to; to take counsel with (with -da-) ('heart' + 'to be tired; to care, worry').

šà...lá: to (en)gorge, stuff ('stomach' + 'to extend, load').

šà-lá-lá: clothed (cf., šà-gada-lal).

šà-lá-sù(-d): merciful; shepherdess ('heart' + 'to extend' + 'far').

šà-ne-ša4: supplications ('heart' + 'this' + 'to grieve').

šà(-ge)...pàd: to choose ('heart, stomach' ( + 'in the') + 'to find, declare').

šà-sig-ga: a depressed heart ('heart' + 'low, small, weak' + nominative).

šà...sìg: to be oppressed ('heart' + 'to strike, crush').

šà-su-ga: dry river bed ('river bed' + sug4, 'to lay bare, empty' + nominative).

šà-sù-ga: hungry; starved; without recompense ('stomach' + 'empty' + nominative).

(gi)šà-sur: (reed-mat) sieve ('gut-like container' + 'to press out a liquid').

šà...sur: to have diarrhea; to spawn eggs (said of a fish) ('intestines' + 'to expel a liquid').

šà...šed7: to cool/soothe the heart ('heart' + 'to calm, cool down').

šà-tam: credible, trustworthy; administrative director, commissioner ('heart' + 'to be polished').

šà-túm: field, acre ('womb' + 'to be suitable; to prepare; to obtain').

šà-tur: womb ('insides' + 'child').

šà-uru(-/ak/): town center ('interior, midst' + 'town' + genitive).

šà-zi-ga: excitement ('heart' + 'to rise up' + nominative).

šà-zu: midwife ('womb' + 'to know').

ša13[gtildcapÁ]-dub-ba: archivist (cf., gtildeadub; pisan-dub).

šagan-lá: peddler, trader ('a large jar for oil' + 'to carry').

šáh(2)-bar-gùn(-gùn)-nu: porcupine ('pig' + 'outside; fleece' + reduplicated 'dot, speckle').

šáh(2)-gtildeiš-gi(4): "bush pig" ('pig' + 'trees' + 'reeds').

šáh(2)-gtildeiš-gi(4)(-ì)-gu7-e: porcupine ('bush pig' + 'it eats').

šáh(2)-niga: fattened pig ('pig' + 'fattened').

šah(2)-ú: pasture grazing pig ('pig' + 'plants, grass').

šáh(2)-zé-da-bar-sur-ra: porcupine ('pig' + 'to cut' + 'to protect' + 'outside; fleece' + 'to spray out').

šakan-kéš: basket weaver (?) ('large jar for oil', + 'to bind, wrap').

šár-ra-ab-du: a temple official (from Akkadian šarru, 'king', + abdu, 'slave').

šàr-ra-ús-sa: body guard (from Akkadian šarru, 'king', + 'to follow' + nominative; cf., ágtildea-ús, 'policeman').

še-ba: barley rations distributed by the administration of the temple, palace, etc. ('barley' + 'portion, rations').

še-ba: to be careless, negligent (cf., šub; šab, 'to fall, disappear').

še-bal: barley lost in processing; grain tax ('barley' + 'to demolish').

itiše-bar-ra-gtildeál-la: calendar month 3 at Umma during Ur III.

še-bi: value-equivalence in barley (used as a standard) ('barley' + 'its').

še-búr-ra: grain released for transport, storage, and further distribution ('barley' + 'to open, release').

še...dé: to clean barley after winnowing ('barley, grain' + 'to pour').

(gtildeiš)še-dùg: 'sweet corn tree' = licorice tree (?) ('corn' + 'sweet').

še...è: (cf., še gtildeiš-è-a).

še-er; še-er-še-er; še-er-zi: shine, light, glimmer (syllabic spelling of šér, 'to shine brightly').

še-er-gu/kum: a long string of dried fruit (probable syllabic spelling of Semitic root, 'to lace, interweave').

še-er...gtildeál: to have authority (Emesal dialect for nir...gtildeál).

še-er-ka-an...dug4/du11/e: to cover with; to adorn (with -ni-) (šár, 'to be many' + gùn, 'to decorate with colors' + 'to effect').

še-er-tab-ba: haystack, cornstack; a type of reed fence (šár, 'to be many' or zár, 'sheaf' + 'to bind, join' + nominative).

še-ga/ge: favorite; to be obedient; to obey; to agree (with -ši-) (cf., sè(g), sig10).

še-GAZ: crushed barley ('barley' + 'to crush').

še-gibil: new grain ('grains' + 'new, fresh').

še-gu-nu: fine grains, good crops, late barley ('grains, barley' + gunu, 'load' ?).

še-gub-ba: barley deposit ('barley' + 'to stand, set' + nominative).

še-GUD: einkorn wheat ('grain' + 'robust like a bull').

še gud(-rá) gu7: grain spent as oxen feed ('barley' + 'bull, ox' ( + dative) + 'to feed').

še-gur10-ku5: (cf., še-sagtilde11-ku5).

itiše-gur10-ku5: (cf., itiše-sagtilde11-ku5).

še-gtildear: barley delivery ('barley' + 'to deliver, deposit').

še...gtildear: to sow barley; to buy with barley ('barley' + 'to deliver, deposit').

še gtildeiš-è-a: harvested grain that has just been threshed and only roughly measured with a stick ('grain + 'stick' + 'to exit from' + nominative).

še-gtildeiš-ì, še-ì-gtildeiš: sesame seeds; sesame oil ('grain' + 'tree' + 'oil').

še gtildeiš...ra(-an/ah): to thresh grain by beating with a flail ('grain + 'stick' + 'to strike').

itiše-íl-la: calendar month 12 at Lagaš during Ur III.

še...lá: to carry grain; to winnow grain ('grain' + 'to lift').

še-li: pine or juniper seeds ('grain corn' + 'juniper').

še-LÚsar: coriander ('grain corn' + 'man or many') [ŠELU archaic frequency: 28].

še-lum-lum: barley sprouts ('grain corn' + 'juniper').

še-muš(5): bitter grain ('grain' + 'bitter').

še-namušen: (cf., sim, sínmušen).

še-numun: seed ('grain' + 'seed').

še-ri-ga: gleaned grain ('grain' + 'to bring').

še-sa: roasted barley ('barley' + 'to roast').

še-sagtilde(11)-ku5: harvest ('grain' + 'to harvest ?' + 'to cut').

itiše-sagtilde11-ku5: calendar month 12 at Nippur during Ur III; calendar month 11 at Lagaš during Ur III; calendar month 1 at Ur during Ur III; calendar month 1 at Umma during Ur III; calendar month 12 at Drehem before Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 1 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3.

še...su-ub: to harvest barley ('barley' + 'to suck').

še...ša4: to moan ('grain; tiny' + 'to mourn').

še...šub: to thresh grain by beating ('barley' + 'to throw').

še...ús: 'treading' by animals as a way of threshing grain ('barley' + 'to drive; to follow').

še...zil-zil(-la): to dehusk barley ('barley' + reduplicated 'to peel').

ŠÈ-ba-an: a measure for fish ('portion' + 'a measure'; cf., ba-an).

še10...dúr: to fart ('excrement' + 'to break wind').

še25/še26...gi4: (cf., sig4...gi4).

šen-šen: combat, strife (reduplicated 'mirror' or 'shield' ?).

šer7-da: capital offense; crime; blame; punishment.

šeš-bàn-da: younger brother ('brother' + 'young, junior').

itišeš-da-gu7: calendar month 2 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 3 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 3 at Ur during Ur III.

ŠEŠ-dúr-rá/a: (cf., sa-dúr(-ra)).

šeš-gal: older brother ('brother' + 'large').

šika-ri: shattered potsherds ('potsherd' + 'to break open; to throw away').

šim-gam-gam(-ma): an aromatic substance - turpentine (?) ('aromatic resin' + reduplicated 'to bend; to shrivel').

šim-gig: frankincense - used in making medicinal plasters ('aromatic resin' + 'to be sick').

šim-im: an aromatic substance ('aromatic substance' + 'wind'; cf., si-im-si-im...ak, 'to sniff').

šim-nagtilde: spice drinkers (?) ('spice' + 'to drink').

šim-PI-PI: an aromatic substance.

šim-su-SÁ: cologne, perfume (?) ('aromatic substance' + 'body' + 'to equal, compete with').

ŠIM×KÚŠU: ambergris ('aromatic substance' + 'turtle; whale ?').

šìr-kug: sacred song; incantation ('song' + 'sacred, holy').

šìr...ágtildea: to sing; to cry (out) ('song' + 'to mete out').

šìr-ra-nam-en-na; šìr-re-nam-nir-ra: song of lordship ('song' + 'lordship' + genitive).

(gtildeiš/urudu)šìr-šìr: chain (probable Akkadian loan word).

šu-a-gi-na: regular, daily offering ('hand; portion' + locative + 'steady' + nominative).

šu...aka: to take captive ('hand' + 'to do').

šu-bal...aka: to alter; to tamper; to set aside ('hand' + 'to change' + 'to do').

šu-gibil-gibil...aka: to renew ('hand' + 'to renovate' + 'to renovate' + 'to do').

šu/šú-luh...aka: to clean (a canal) ('hand' + 'to clean' + 'to do').

šu...ba: (cf., šu...bad, šu...bar).

šu...bad: to release ('hand' + 'to open').

šu...bal: to alter; to tamper; to set aside ('hand' + 'to change').

šu...bar: to release, let loose ('hand' + 'to open, release').

šu...búru: to open the hand ('hand' + 'to open').

šu-da: hand and forearm, as a unit of measurement, ell/cubit (cf., kùš) ('hand' + 'arm').

šu-dab(5)(-ba): sale ('hand' + 'to clasp, take away' + nominative).

šu...dab(2,4,5): to take or accept ('hand' + 'to hold, take, receive').

šu-kígtilde...dab(5): to perform a service; to kneel down ('hand' + 'order, task' + 'to hold/seize').

šu...dag: to roam about; to run away ('hand' + 'to roam').

šu...dar: to slaughter (redupl. class) ('hand' + 'to slice, split, shatter').

šu...de6: to set to work ('hand' + 'to bring').

šu-dim4-ma: loyal ('hand' + 'subservient' + nominative).

šu-dù-a: length measure of 10 fingers = 16.666 cm. ('hands' + 'to stack').

šu...dù: to bind the hands; to apply one's hands to ('hands' + 'to fasten').

šu-hul...dù: to destroy ('hands' + 'evil' + 'to fasten').

šu...du7: to embellish; to put on the finishing touches; to complete; to make perfect (with -ta-) (reduplication class) ('hand' + 'to complete').

šu...du8: to hold in the hand (with -ni- or bi-) ('hand' + 'to open').

šu-du8-a: guarantee ('to hold' + nominative).

šu-du8-a...DU(de6/túm): to act as guarantor for ('guarantee' + 'to bring, carry').

šu...dug4/du11/e: to touch; to place, put ('hand' + 'to effect').

šu(-dagtildeal)...dug4/du11/e: to supply, to provide (generously) with (with -ni-) ('hand' ( + 'wide, copious') + 'to effect').

šu líl-lá...dug4/du11/e: to be haunted ('hand' + 'spirit of a place' + 'to effect').

šu pe-el lá...dug4/du11/e: to defile; to be defiled ('hand' + pil, 'to be/make dirty, defiled' + 'to penetrate, pierce' + 'to effect').

šu sá...dug4/du11/e: to attain ('hand' + 'to reach, arrive').

šu sùh-a...dug4/du11/e: to confuse, disconcert; to be confused ('hand' + 'in confusion' + 'to effect').

šu-tag...dug4/du11/e: to adorn; to decorate (with -ni-); to sprinkle; to paint ('hand' + 'to weave, decorate, strike' + 'to effect').

šu ùh-a...dug4/du11/e: (cf., šu sùh-a...dug4/du11/e).

šu-dul5: (cf., šudun).

itišu-eš-ša: calendar month 8 at Drehem before Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 9 at Ur during Ur III.

šu-gána: agricultural tool ('hand' + 'field').

šu-gi(4): old ('hand' + 'to return' ?, 'to lock up' ?, 'reed-like' ?).

šu(-a)...gi4: to bring back; to lead back; to repay; to repeat; to answer ('hand' ( + locative) + 'to return').

šu-gíd: dues; general obligation ('hand' + 'to reach out; to measure out').

šu...gíd: to accept; to observe/inspect the offering animal (cf., šu-maš-gíd-gíd; 'hand' + 'to reach out').

šu...gu4-gu4-ud: to jumpily move around ('hand' + 'to leap, dance').

šu...gur: to roll; to wrap; to wipe ('hand' + 'circular motion').

šu...gtildeál: to hold by the hand ('hand' + 'to place in').

šu-gtildear: effect ('hand' + 'to deliver').

šu...gtildear: to perform a task; to carry out; to be favorable; to cease doing something (with -ta-) ('hand' + 'to deliver').

šu(-a/šè)...gtildear: to be/place in the hand; to subdue ('hand' + locative/terminative + 'to deliver').

šu-šu...gtildear: to grant a pardon ('hand' + 'hand' + 'to deliver').

šu-ha: robber (cf., šu-ku6(-d)).

šu...ha-za: to hold in the hand ('hand' + 'to hold, grasp').

šu-hal-la: open hand ('hand' + 'to divide, distribute' + nominative).

šu...hu-uz: to roast; to burn ('hand' + 'to rage at') (cf., šu...ru-uz).

(lú)šu-i: barber ('hand' + 'to sprout' ?).

šu-íl-la(2): prayer (hand-raising) ('hand' + 'to raise' + nominative).

šu...íl: to build; to grow rich ('hand' + 'to raise').

šu...kar(2): to take away; to withdraw ('hand' + 'to take away').

(gtildeiš)šu-kár: tools, parts, components ('hand' + 'to encircle, besiege').

šu ki-in-dar: full of cracks ('handful' + 'crevices').

(gtildeiš)šu-KIN: sickle ('hand' + 'work, task'; cf., sagtildea11/sigtilde18, 'to cut, break, harvest').

gišu-KIN: faggot of reeds ('hand' + 'work, task'; cf., sagtildea11/sigtilde18, 'to cut, break, harvest').

šu-ku6(-d): fisherman ('hand' + 'fish' + ?; should read ešsadx ?).

šu(-a)-lá: paralyzed, folded, idle (said of hands) ('hands' + locative + 'to bind, diminish').

šu-lá-a: entrusted ('hands' + 'to hold' + nominative).

šu...lal/lá-lá: to defile; to reach; to bind (the hands); to wring the hands ('hand' + 'to pierce, penetrate; to stretch; to bind; to hold').

šu-šè...lal/lá: to hold in the hand, suspend from the hands ('hand' + 'to bind, hold, hang').

šu(4)-luh: ritual cleansing, purification ritual, lustration ('hand' + 'to clean').

šu-luh-ha: purification ritual man, lustration priest ('ritual cleansing' + nominative).

šu-maš-gíd-gíd: diviner; omen (cf., šu...gíd; 'hand' + 'goat kid' + reduplicated 'to reach out').

ŠU-ME-EREN: cypress resin (cf., (gtildeiš)šu-úr-me).

šu...mú: to enlarge; to expand (with -ni-); to pray (with dative) ('hand' + 'to grow').

na4šu-na: pestle ('hand' + 'stone').

ŠU+NIgtildcapIN: grand total ('hand' + 'circle, whole') [? ŠUNIGIN archaic frequency: 1].

ŠU+NÍgtildcapIN: subtotal ('hand' + 'circle, whole').

šu...nigtildein: to proceed; to hurry ('hand' + 'to make the rounds').

šu-nim-ma: early to work ('hand' + 'early' + nominative).

(gtildeiš)šu-nir: standard; emblem with woolen streamers; totemic device ('hand' + 'to raise high').

itišu-numun: calendar month 4 at Lagaš during Ur III; calendar month 4 at Nippur during Ur III.

šu...peš: to expand; to spread out ('hand' + 'womb; to expand').

šu...ra: to knead clay and form it into a tablet; to erase ('hand' + 'to beat, stir').

šu...ri: to wring the hands over (with -ši-) ('hands' + 'to place against').

šu-ri(2)(-a): one-half ('hand' + 'to take, remove' + nominative).

šu...ru-uz: to burn; to roast; to glow (cf., šu...hu-uz).

šu...sagtilde11/sigtilde18: to rub ('hand' + 'to make a harvesting motion').

šu-si: finger ('hand' + 'horn, ray, antenna').

šu(-a)...si: to fill the hands (with) ('hand' + locative + 'to fill').

šu-šè...si: to hand over; to deliver ('hand' + 'towards' + 'to fill').

šu si...sá: to do things to perfection; to see that all is right ('hand' + 'right; legal').

šu...si-ig: to hit with the hand ('hand' + 'to strike down, silence').

šu...sìg(-sìg): to wave the hand ('hand' + 'to beat rhythmically').

šu...su-ub: to gather up; to collect; to scrape together ('hands' + 'to suck').

šu...sud/sù: to stretch the hand out after something ('hand' + 'to make remote').

šu...sum: to give; to entrust ('hand' + 'to give').

šu-šúr: seizing ('hand' + 'fierce, furious').

šu...tag: to cover; to adorn, decorate (often with -ni-) ('hand' + 'to weave, decorate').

šu...taka4: to send, dispatch (with dative) ('hand' + 'to push').

šu-a...taka4: to leave (something) to (someone) ('hand' + locative + 'to push').

šu...te: to take (variation of šu...ti).

šu...ti: to take up, accept, adopt; to grab; to borrow; to gain; to receive; to be taken, accepted (with terminative and -ši-) ('hand' + 'to approach').

šu-ti-a: goods, staples, etc. received ('to receive' + nominative).

šu-tu-tu: escape ('hand' + reduplicated 'to interfere').

šu...túkur: to nibble or lick one's fingers ('hand' + 'to gnaw, nibble').

(gtildeiš)šu-úr-me: the cypress or Persian oak tree or its resin ('to pour' + 'tree trunk' + 'to be').

šu...ùr: to erase; to wipe (with -ni- and bi-; also with -ta-) ('hand' + 'to drag over').

šu-ùr-ra: scraping or grinding by hand ('hand' + 'to shear' + nominative).

šu...ús: to send, dispatch; to push or knock on (a door); to hold out in the hand ('hand' + 'to reach out').

šu...zi-zi(-g): to raise one's hand (in violence) ('hand' + reduplicated 'to rise up').

šub-lugal: subordinate of the king ('to drop; to delegate' + 'king').

šùd...rá: to pray ('to pray' + 'plural, to come, go').

šuku-dab5-ba: person assigned to pick up allotted rations ('rations' + 'to hold' + nominative).

šul-a-lum: punishment (probably Akkadian loanword from šalaalu, 'to plunder; to deprive').

šul-zi: worthy young man ('young man' + 'good; true').

šúr-dùmušen: (trained) falcon ('fierce' + 'to work').

ta-àm: what is it? ('from' + 3rd. sing. enclitic copula).

tab-ba: partner ('to join; to be double' + nominative).

TAG.ME: (cf., šum).

taka4...lal: to open ('to open' + 'to reach').

tám-še-lum: a resin, perhaps from the boxwood ('shiny; bound' ? + 'grain, seed' + 'productive').

te-àm: (cf., ta-àm).

te-en: (cf., ten).

te-eš...dug4/du11/e: to put together (?) (téš, 'together', + 'to speak/do').

te-gtildee26(-d): to approach, meet (someone: dative); to attack, assault; to be frightened, worried (alternating class, marû stem; cf., te).

te-me-en; te-me: (cf., temen).

te-te(-ma): (cf., te-gtildee26).

téš-bi: together ('together' + adverbial force suffix).

téš(-bi)...gu7: to devour everything; to consume ('together' + 'to eat').

téš...i-i: to pray ('together' + 'to rise').

téš(-a)...sì-ke: to make agree ('together' ( + locative) + 'to put, place, cause').

téš...(nu-)tuku: to have (no) shame; shameless ('shame, modesty' + ('not' + ) 'to have').

(gtildeiš)ti: strut, brace, rib ('rib').

ti...bal: to signal (?) ('arrow' + 'to revolve').

ti-gi4: kettledrum ('to approach; to assault' + 'to return; to answer').

dugti-lim-da: a vessel ('lives' + 'thousand' + 'with').

ti-mar-uru5: arrow quiver (?) (play on tu15-mar-uru5 (?), 'flood'; 'arrow' + 'to enclose' + 'high, deep').

ti-mud...gtildeál: to create life ('life' + 'to give birth' + 'to be').

ti-na: adv., strongly ('to live; healthy' + subordination suffix /-a/).

ti...ra: to shoot an arrow ('arrow' + 'to stab').

ti-rí-gtildeálal: a small bird ('arrow' + 'city' + 'to dwell').

(gtildeiš)ti-zú: barbed arrow ('arrow' + 'teeth; flint').

tigi-nì-du10-ga/e: harp of beautiful sound ('harp' + 'thing' + 'sweet' + genitive).

til-lu-ug: elephant ('lion-killer' ?).

tir-an-na: rainbow ('forest' + 'sky' + genitive).

TU-gur4mušen: (cf., tum12-gur4mušen).

tu-lu: to be/make loose or limp (Akkadian tulluu, 'to hang up').

(gtildeiš)tu-lu-bu-um: plane tree or wood (Akkadian dulbum, 'Oriental plane tree').

tu-ra: (cf., tur5).

tu-ud: (cf., tud).

tu6-tu6: incantations (reduplicated 'exorcistic formula').

tu15...dirig: (cf., ní...dirig).

tud-sum: onion or garlic bulb for planting ('to beget' + 'onion').

túg-bir7-ra: torn clothes ('cloth' + 'to rip to pieces' + nominative).

túg-dim-gal(-la-k): sail on a mast ('cloth' + 'mast' + genitive).

TÚG-DU8: textile fuller ('cloth' + 'residue; to bake').

túg-gú-lal: blanket (for an animal) ('cloth' + 'back of neck' + 'to drape').

túg-gur8/gur: the last plowing (originally LAK 483 + 'deep').

túg-íb-dù: a woolen garment ('cloth' + 'waist, hips' + 'to mould').

túg-ku-ru-um: mourning (?) clothes (Akkadian kuuru, 'daze, depression, stupor').

túg-me-zé-er-ra: rags ('cloth' + 'function' + 'to tear up, break' + nominative).

túg-mu-dur7[BU]-ra: (cf., mu-dur7(-ra)).

túg-nígtilde-bàra-(g): bed spread ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'stretched out').

túg-nígtilde-dára: loincloth ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'to bind; belt, sash').

túg-nígtilde-dára-gála-sír-ra: pubic band or napkin for a woman ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'to bind; belt, sash' + 'vulva' + 'dense; feverish' + nominative).

túg-nígtilde-dùn-dù: a woolen garment ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'to bring low' + 'to mould').

túg-nígtilde-lal: a woolen garment ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'to drape').

túg-nígtilde-lám: a festive garment, dress ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'an awe-inspiring quality').

túg-nígtilde-sal-la: a woolen garment ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'vulva' + genitive).

túg-nígtilde-ur5-ra-ak-a: fine quality clothes ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'to gasp' + nominative).

túg-sigtilde18: the first plowing (originally LAK 483 + 'to cut, break, harvest').

túg-šà-ga-dù: cloth belt or woolen belted garment (?) ('cloth' + 'stomach' + nominative + 'to mould, shape').

TÚG-TAG: to fill or pile cloth (?) ('cloth' + 'to weave; to strike').

túg-TAR: short-cut robe (?) ('cloth' + 'to cut').

túg...ùr: to make a sacrifice ('clothing' + 'to drag').

túg-ZI-ZI-a: magnificent (?) robe ('cloth' + 'to spend' + nominative).

(gtildeiš)tukul...sìg: to slaughter ('mace, weapon' + 'to strike, hurt').

tukumbi...-nu: except ('if' + 'not').

tum12[TU]-gur4mušen: turtle (?) dove ('dove, pigeon' + 'plump, big').

tumu-mer: north, northwind ('wind' + 'anger').

TÙN...bar: to hew or split with an axe.

TÙN.PAD: slice, morsel of food ('stomach; lip' + 'bite of food').

tur...gu7: to eat modestly ('little' + 'to eat').

tur-tur: little ones (cf., didi, di4-di4-la) (reduplicated 'little').

tùr-gù-nun: sanctuary with the loud voice ('birth-hut as metaphor for sanctuary' + 'voice' + 'great, noble').

tuš...gtildeá-gtildeá: to dwell ('home' + 'to establish').

U.GÙN: (cf., ugun).

U.PIRIgtildcap...tag: (cf., kušu/kušumx(-ki)...tag).

ú-a: caretaker, provider ('food' + 'water' or nominative).

ú...bu-bu(-r): to tear out plants ('plant' + reduplicated 'to tear out').

ú-du(-l): (cf., udul).

ú-dug4: (cf., udug).

ú-durunx[DÚR.DÚR]-na: hay or dry brushwood ('grasses' + 'to dwell; to dry out' + nominative).

ú-gíd-da: long grasses ('grasses' + 'long' + nominative).

ú-gu(3)...dé: to lose; to disappear; to be lost (ugu,.'top of the head' + 'to sink').

ú-šè...gtildein/gub: to go to fetch food ('food' + terminative + 'to go/to stand').

ú...húb: to be deaf; to deafen.

ú-kígtilde-gtildeá: pasturage ('plants, grass, food' + 'to seek, work' + nominative).

ú...lá: to diminish; to stem (the flow of water).

ú-làl: a sweet water-plant, the eating of which is a metaphor for sexual intercourse ('plant' + 'honey').

ú-li: herb(s) ('plant' + 'fine smelling').

ú-lipiš-gig: nettles (?) ('plant' + 'anger/heart' + 'illness').

ú-lu-úbsar: leeks (cf., lu-úbsar).

ú-lu5-ši: (cf., ulušin).

Ú-NINNI5 [TIR/TIR]: a resin measured by volume.

ú-nu-kígtilde-gtildeá: untested grazing grounds (cf., ú-kígtilde-gtildeá).

ú...ri(-g): to collect firewood ('plants' + 'to glean; to bring').

ú-rum: private, personal (property); possession (cf., ùru[-m], 'to watch, guard, protect').

ú-sagtilde11: fascine to sustain a canal bank or levee ('plants' + 'to cut, break, harvest').

ú-sagtilde11...zé: to cut fascine plants ('fascine' + 'to cut').

ú-sal: a low-lying fertile area along a watercourse ('grass, plants' + 'to persist').

ú-sal-la...nú: to lie down in security ('food' + 'to persist' + 'to lie down').

ú-si4-an evening ('food' + 'red' + 'sky').

ú...sud/sù: to dine; to eat ('food' + 'to sip; to sprinkle').

ú-sug4: unclean, menstruating woman (cf., úzug).

ú-šim: grass and herbs = pasture (a Sumerian example of asyndetic hendiadys).

Ú-TIR: a spice or seed measured by weight.

ú-tul: (cf., udul).

ú-za-gìn: fresh hay ('grass' + 'clean').

ú-zug4: foul food ('food' + úzug, 'menstruating, unclean woman').

ù-a: n., sleep ('to sleep' + nominative).

ù-an-bar: (cf., u4-bar).

ù-bu-bu-ul: pus, pustule; flame (pronominal prefix + reduplicated bul(4); bu(5), to ignite; to sprout; Akkadian bubu'tu(m)).

ù-di: sleep; rest; daze, depression (cf., u6-di) ('sleep' + 'to go'; cf., gtildei6...di).

ù-gul...gtildear/gtildeá-gtildeá: to pray to; to entreat (with dative) (prospective modal prefix + 'evil' + 'to take oaths').

ù...ku(4): to sleep (reduplication class); to rest ('sleep' + 'to lie down; to enter').

ù-lul-la...ku(4): to sleep badly ('sleep' + 'treacherous' + 'to lie down; to enter').

ù-la: anything; nothing (pronominal prefix + 'numerous').

ù-luh-gi4-rin: scepter of pure, bright light (?) (ù for u4 ?).

ù-luh...sù: to send out offshoots (pronominal prefix + 'clean' + 'to stretch, rejoice').

ù-ma; ù-na: victory, triumph (prospective modal prefix + me-a, 'when in battle').

     adj., domineering, pugnacious, impetuous.

ù-ma/ù-na...gub: to attain victory, triumph ('when in battle' + 'to emerge standing').

ù-mu-un: Emesal dialect, cf., en.

ù-nu-gtildear-ra: fraud (pronominal prefix + 'not' + 'established' + nominative).

ù-sá: sleep ('sleep' + 'to equal in value'; cf., gtildei6...sá, 'midnight').

ù-sá...dab5: to be overcome by sleep (ù-sá, 'sleep' + 'to seize').

(gtildeiš)ù-suh5: fir or spruce tree or wood (phonetic spelling shows original full pronunciation of suh5, 'confusion; to uproot; encircling wall').

ù-sun[BAD]: wild cow, cf., sún.

(gtildeiš)ù-šub: brick mold; a platform for molding or drying bricks (same form as udun, 'kiln for bricks'; pronominal prefix + 'to throw, drop, plop'; cf., šab, 'to chip out, apportion out').

ù-tu-(d): to give birth; to create ('to lie down' + 'to create'; cf., tud).

ù-ur5-re: all this (pronominal prefix + 'these').

u4...(-a): (at the time) when... [this brackets an entire phrase] ('time' + nominative or genitive).

u4...-a-gin7: while..., ('time' + 'as; when').

u4...-a-ta: after (the time) when... ('time' + 'after').

u4...á-bi/ba(-/ak/): to be or do on time, at the right moment ('time' + 'moment' + adverbial force suffix).

u4-an-na: light of the heavens ('light' + 'heaven' + genitive).

u4-ba: at that time; in those days; then ('time' + bi-a, 'that; its').

u4-bar: midday (cf., an-bar).

u4-bi-ta: the past ('days' + 'those' + 'from').

u4-buru14: at the time of the harvest ('days, time' + 'harvest').

u4-da: today ('day' + 'with, near, present').

u4-da gtildeiš-en: if ('today' + irrealis suffix).

u4-da-tuš: a clown who performed with bears and pigs ('today' + 'to set up camp').

u4(-bar)-dagtildeal: extensive daylight, long day ('day' ( + 'middle') + 'wide').

u4-gíd-da: all day long ('day' + 'to be long' + nominative suffix).

u4-huš: raging storm ('storm' + 'furious, terrible, awesome').

u4-imin: seven days ('day' + 'seven').

u4-na-me...nu-tuku: there was never ('time' + prohibitive modal prefix + 'to be' + 'to not have'; cf., lú...na-me...nu-).

u4-nu-dùg-ga: unhappy days ('day' + 'not' + 'sweet, good' + nominative suffix).

u4-ri-a: in those (far remote) days ('days' + remote demonstrative affix + locative).

u4-sa9-a: half a day ('day' + 'half' + nominative suffix).

u4-sakar[SAR](-ra): crescent moon; new moon; segment of a circle; a plant, possibly rushes or nettles ('day, light' + 'to begin' + 'renewal'; cf., é-u4-sakar).

u4-sakar-gibil: reviving new moon, thin crescent moon ('day, light' + 'to begin' + 'renewal'; cf., é-u4-sakar).

u4-sud-ra: for eternity ('time' + 'remote' + dative 'for').

u4...(al-)šú-šú-ru: to become cloudy or dark ('daylight' + šúš/šú, 'to become dark' + šur, 'to rain' ? + marû 3rd. sing. ending with vowel harmony).

u4-šú-uš(-e): daily; day by day ('day, daylight' + šúš/šú, 'to become dark' + locative-terminative postposition).

u4-te(-en): evening ('daylight' + 'to extinguish, cool down').

u4-te(-na): morning ('daylight' + 'to approach').

u4-tu(-ud)-da: birthday ('day' + 'birth' + genitive).

u4-tur(-ra): early in the day; short in duration ('time' + 'small').

u4-u: ten days ('day' + 'ten').

u4-ul-la; u4-ì-li: tomorrow ('day' + Akkadian elûm, 'to come up' and eli, 'above, beyond').

u4-ul-lí-a-ta: from long ago ('days' + 'ancient' + nominative + 'from').

u4-za-ha...(al-)aka: to waste a day; to disappear ('time' + 'to flee, hide, be lost' + 'to cause').

u4...zal: the day dawns; to spend the day; to elapse; to waste time; to be late ('time' + 'to flow, pass').

u4-zal-la: day, morning, dawn ('day' + 'to flow, elapse' + nominative).

u4-X zal-la: on the Xth day ('day' + 'to flow, elapse' + nominative).

u5-a: lullaby ('raised high' + nominative).

u5-bímušen; ú-bímušen; ub-bìmušen: whooping swan (onomatopoeic).

itiu5-bí-gu7: calendar month 3 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 4 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 4 at Ur during Ur III.

u6-di: admiration, amazement ('to be impressed' + 'to judge').

u6(-di)...di/dug4/e: to admire; to gain admiration ('admiration' + 'to speak, do').

u6...è/i(-i): to look; to appear ('to look at; to stare at' + 'to be or become visible').

u6-e...gub: to be wonderful ('amazement' + ergative agent marker + 'to stand').

u8-udu-há sheep; (flock of) sheep and goats.

u18[GIŠGAL]-lu: southwind [with classifier IM]; storm; sandstorm ('huge' + 'numerous, abundant').

u18-lu(-da)...dul: to cover with a storm ('storm' + 'with' + 'to cover').

u18[GIŠGAL]-ru(-n): exalted; high; overwhelming; mighty ('huge' + 'to send'; cf., uru16(-n)).

ub-ba...gub: to deposit in the corner ('corner' + locative + 'to set').

ub-líl-lá: outdoor shrine ('niche' + 'wind, spirit (of a place), fresh air' + nominative or genitive).

ub-šu-ukkin-na: assembly ('corner' + 'power' + 'meeting' + 'human being').

ub5-kug-ga: keeper of the sacred drum ('drum' + 'pure, holy' + nominative).

ud: (cf., u4).

UD.KA.BAR: (cf., zabar).

UD.UD: (cf., babbar, dadag).

udu-dub: tablet-recorded sheep ('sheep' + 'tablet').

udu-nígtilde-gu7-a: fattened sheep ('sheep' + 'fattened').

udu-nitah: male sheep, ram ('sheep' + 'male').

udu-sar: a vegetable (?) ('sheep' + 'vegetable').

udu-siki: wool sheep ('sheep' + 'wool').

udu-šag5-ga: slaughtered sheep ('sheep' + 'to slaughter' + nominative).

udu-šár-a: perfect sheep ('sheep' + 'totality; to slaughter' + nominative).

udu-še-gu7-a: (wool from) barley-fed sheep ('sheep' + 'barley' + 'to eat' + nominative).

udu šu-nir: sheep whose wool was used to make streamers for the group standards.

udun-mah: huge baking oven ('oven' + 'huge').

udun-še-sa-a: barley roasting oven ('oven' + 'barley' + 'to roast' + nominative).

úgu...ba-a-gtildear: to place in a person's debit account ('account' + impersonal conjugation prefix + locative infix + 'to deposit') (cf., gú-a...gtildear).

ugu4-bi; a-gáb: ape, monkey ('to give birth' + inanimate demonstrative ["Inanimate are things and animals." Thomsen, p. 49]).

ugula-àga-ús: overseer of vassals ('overseer' + 'crown' + 'to follow').

ugula-íla: foreman of the porters ('overseer' + 'to carry').

ugula-gtildeéš-da: officer in charge of sixty men ('overseer' + gtildeezwedge, 'sixty' + genitival suffix /a(k)/).

ugula-uru(-na-/ak/): captain of the/his city ('overseer' + 'city' + 'his' + genitive).

ùgtildea-lu-a: multitudes ('people' + 'to be numerous' + nominative).

uh...uš7: (cf., ah...uš7).

uku-ús: (cf., aga(3)-ús).

ÙKU.ÍL: (cf., un-gùr).

ul.KU: receiver (?).

ul-šár-ra: jubilation ('joy' + 'to multiply' + nominative).

ul...šár: to gladden; to exult ('joy' + 'to multiply').

ul-ti(-a): happy mood ('joy' + 'life' + genitive).

ul4-la-bi: very soon, quickly ('quick' + adverbial ending).

um-ma: elderly lady; witch ('old woman' + 'to bind').

um-me-da: (cf., ummeda).

um-mi(3)-a: schoolmaster; scholar; artisan ('wise or skillful teacher' + 'offices, functions' + nominative or genitive).

umbin-gud: oxen hooves; oxen tracks ('fingernail' + 'ox').

umbin...kud: to shave; to shear; to manicure ('fingernail' + 'to cut off').

umuš...kúr: to change one's mind ('discernment; decision' + 'to change').

un-gùr/ga6(-me): a menial worker ('people' + Umma reading for íla sign, 'to bear, carry' + 'to be').

un-íl-me: menials ('people' + 'to carry' + 'to be').

un sagtilde-gtildei6: black-headed people = Sumerians ('people' + 'heads' + 'black').

unkin-gtildear-ra: communal assembly ('people' + 'to fetch' + 'to establish' + nominative).

unu(2,6)-gal: great dining hall ('elevated shrine, fortress' + 'great').

itiUR: calendar month 7 at Ur during Ur III; calendar month 10 at Umma before Šulgi 30.

ur-bar-ra: wolf ('dog' + 'outside' + nominative).

ur-bi; ur5-bi: together (cf., téš-bi).

ur-gir15/gi7[KU]: dog ('dog' + 'domestic').

ur-mah: lion ('carnivorous beast' + 'mighty').

ur-mú-da: watchdog (?) ('dog' + mud6, 'to sing' + nominative).

ur-sa6-ga: a pampered dog ('dog' + 'to be friendly' + nominative).

ur-sagtilde: hero, warrior ('young man' + 'first, in front').

ur-tur: a pet dog or puppy ('dog' + 'small').

ur-ur-a...gtildear: to assemble a list, schedule, or plan ('servants' + locative + 'to set').

úr...zé(-zé): to roam ('legs' + 'to cut continuously').

ur4-ur4: to devastate, lay bare (reduplicated 'to harvest').

ur5...aka: to gasp ('liver, soul' + 'to do').

ur5-da: to be mindful, careful; to hear ('heart, soul' + 'with').

ur5-di-da: famous (one) (?) (cf., lú-di-da).

ur5...gúr: to bow down (in grief) ('liver, soul' + 'to bow down, submit').

ur5 hé-en-na-nam-ma-àm: thus shall it be indeed ('thus' + 'it is indeed').

ur5-ra-šè: to be like that ('in such manner' + nominative + 'towards').

ur5-re, ur5-e: in such manner, thus ('it; thus' + locative terminative e).

ur5...sa6: to be/make comfortable, happy ('liver, soul' + 'to satisfy'; cf., gtilde-ur5-sa6-sa6).

ur5...ša4: to roar, bellow ('liver, soul' + 'to mourn') (contrast še...ša4).

ur5-šè: debt with interest ('loan' + 'portion').

ur5-tud: domestic servant ('debt' + 'to be born').

ur5-tuku: debtor; creditor ('debt; loan' + 'to have').

uru-bar-ra: outside the city, outskirts of the city, the countryside ('city' + 'outside' + nominative).

uru-kúr(-ra): (in) a foreign city ('city' + 'strange' + locative).

uru-šà-ga: the interior city (contrasts to uru-bar-ra)('city' + 'inside' + nominative).

uru-tuš: (cf., ki-tuš).

urudu-A-EN-da: a type of copper.

urudu-nì-kala-ga: strong copper ('copper' + 'thing' + 'to be strong' + nominative).

us-ga: a type of priest.

ús-sagtilde: rigging (of a ship) ('side; to join' + 'bow of a ship'; cf., (gtildeiš)má-sagtilde-gtildeá).

ùsan-mar: wagon whip (?) ('whip' + 'wagon').

usu-tuku: a strong person ('skill; strength' + 'to have').

uš-bar: (cf., ušbar).

(gtildeiš)uš-bar: ruler's staff; scepter ('penis' + 'to see, show').

uš-gíd-da: storehouse; granary; silo (for barley, dates, oil) (cf., arah4) ('foundation' + 'to be long' + nominative).

uš-gtildear-ra: firm foundation ('foundation' + 'to establish' + nominative).

uš-sì-ga: unsafe foundation ('foundation' + 'to damage' + nominative).

úš-a: piling up an earthen block or dam (cf., a úš-a) ('to block' + nominative).

7...dug4: to spit ('spittle' + 'to speak, do, make').

11...sig10/sì: to throw/inject venom on/in... ('venom' + 'to apply, put in').

dutu-è: sunrise ('sun' + 'to rise; to become visible').

uz-ga: (cf., é-uz-ga).

UZ.TURmušen: (cf., bibadmušen).

ùz-ga-nagtilde: milking goat ('goat' + 'milk' + 'drinking').

uzu-ì: fatty meat ('meat' + 'fat').

uzu-libx[Í.UDU]: mutton fat ('meat' + 'mutton fat').

za-a-kam...dug4/du11: say: it is thine ('you' + /ak/, 'of' + àm, 'it is' + 'to speak').

(gtildeiš)za-ba-lum: a variety of juniper (resin) ('kernel' + 'to give' + 'abundance').

za-dím: stone cutter ('[precious] stone' + 'to fashion').

za-e: you; yourself.

na4za-gìn: lapis lazuli; precious stone (in general) ('stone' + 'colorful').

za-gìn: clean ('precious stone').

(na4)za-gìn-duru5: lustrous, shiny lapis lazuli ('lapis lazuli' + 'moist').

za-ha: (cf., zah2,3).

za-ha-din; za-ha-ti: a type of onion, possibly Allium desertorium ('kernel' + 'many' + 'to cure').

za-na: caterpillar ('monotonous repetition' + 'distinct things or selves').

(gtildeiš)za-na: puppet.

(gtildeiš)za-na...tag: to handle a puppet ('puppet' + 'to touch, handle').

za-pa-ágtilde: sound; breath (za, 'rhythmic sound' or zi, 'breathing' transformed by vowel harmony + 'puffing sound' + 'to mete out'; cf., šìr...ágtildea).

za-pa-ah: (cf., zipah).

za-ra: pole, shaft of chariots, wagons, harrows, and doors (cf., (gtildeiš)zar).

za-ra...dug4/du11: to lecture ('to you' + 'to speak').

za-za: (cf., ki...za).

za-za-ga: marjoram or oregano (?).

zà: (cf., zag).

zà[ZAG]-hi-li(-a)sar: a condiment made from a prickly plant such as wild safflower ('border, beginning' + 'charm, appeal'; Akk. sahlû).

zà-mí: (hymn of) praise ('territory' + 'woman').

(gtildeiš)zà-mí: musical instrument - a lyre.

zag-bar: (metal) quantity left over by cutting ('percentage' + 'to pare away').

zag...dib: to elevate over ('barrier' + 'to cross').

zag-du8: threshold ('boundary' + 'to adorn').

zag-è: buttress (?) ('barrier' + 'to rise').

zag-gu-la; zag-gal-la: a type of chair; seat of honor ('side, shoulder' + 'great').

zag...kéš: to endow with ('side' + 'to bind to').

zag-munus: (cf., zà-mí).

zag-sá[DI]; zag-ša4[DI]: equal; rival ('limit' + 'to equal').

zag-še(3); zag-ša4: strength; bed ('limit' + 'to the').

zag...šuš: to brand; to mark ('side' + 'to throw down').

zag...tag: to push away; to reject; to overthrow; to push off, launch ('edge, limit' + 'to touch, push').

zag-uru: outskirts of the city ('edge, limit' + 'city').

zag 5-ús: a fifth (as a division) ('percentage' + 5 or other number + 'length').

zag...ús: to border on; to stand by; to set aside ('edge, limit' + 'to lean against').

záh-bi: adv., to the bitter end, until disappearance ('to perish' + adverbial force suffix).

zar(-re-eš)...du8: to pile up ('sheaves' + phonetic complement + 'much' + 'to open; to spread').

zar(-re-eš)...sal: to spread; to heap up ('sheaves' + phonetic complement + 'much' + 'to be wide').

zàr-tab-ba: the work of binding sheaves ('sheaf' + 'to bind' + nominative).

zé-eb: Emesal dialect, cf., dùg.

šáhzé-eh-tur: small pig (phonetic spelling of šáh + 'small').

zé-èm: Emesal dialect, cf., sum.

zé-er; zi-re: to tear up; to tear out; to remove; to slip; to break (often with -ta-).

zé-me that is yourself (za, 'you', with vowel harmony + 'to be.

(gtildeiš)zé-na: palm frond ('to be cut, sheared' + 'an individual case of').

zeh-gaba: sexually mature female goat kid ('female goat kid' + 'breasts').

zi-ba-tum: an aromatic seed (?).

zi-bí: a form of caraway seed (Akkadian loanword, from zibû, 'black cumin').

zi-dè-eš(2)(-šè): adv., loyally, faithfully ('truth' + adverbial force suffix).

zi-dè-eš(-šè)...pà-da: to faithfully choose ('faithfully' + 'to choose').

zi-du: a good person ('good' + 'to walk').

zi...dug4: to tell the truth ('truth' + 'to speak').

zi-ga(-àm): torn out, extracted, deducted, expended; risen up ('to tear out; to rise up' + nominative).

zi-ga...gtildear: to impose a levy ('to tear out, deduct' + nominative + 'to establish').

(gtildeiš)zi-gan: rudder, oar ('to rise up' + 'pestle').

zi...gi4: to be on good terms ('faith' + 'to restore').

zi-gtildeál(-la): living being ('breath' + 'to be available' + nominative).

zi...gtildeál: to grant life; to have life ('breath' + 'to be available; to place, put').

zi-ik-ru-um, zi-ik-rum: wise, old men (Akk. zikru(m) I, 'utterance' and zikaru(m) and zikru II, 'male').

zi...ir/ra: to be troubled, worried, sad; to be broken ('faith' + 'to lead away [plural]').

zi lugal: oath ('breath; soul' + 'king').

zi-mah: legitimate (and) lofty ('legitimate' + 'lofty').

zi...pa-an-pa-an: to breathe ('breath' + bun, 'to blow').

zi...pà(-d): to take an oath; to conjure ('faith' + 'to swear').

(gtildeiš)zi-ri/rí-gúm/qum: a device for moving irrigation water, involving a water bucket hanging from a swinging beam (cf., Sumerian (gtildeiš)á-lá); a reed or clay pipe or pipette (Akkadian loanword ziriiqu from zaraaqu).

zi-šà-gtildeál: n., divine encouragement; inspiration; sustenance ('breath' + 'innards' + 'to be available').

     adj., alive.

zi-šà...gtildeál: to provide (someone: -ši-) with life ('breath' + 'innards' + 'to place').

zi...(ši)-tum2,3/de6: to take refuge ('life' + ('into') + 'to bring').

zi-zi-i: subtracting, subtraction; to revolt, rebel; revolting (reduplicated 'to tear out').

zì: (cf., zíd).

zíd-bar-si: a type of emmer wheat flour ('flour' + 'to release' + 'like a sprout').

zíd-dub-dub: flour for the best ritual actions ('flour' + reduplicated 'to pour, move in a circle, shake, sprinkle off, strew').

zíd-gu: fine barley flour ('flour' + 'net').

zíd-gú-gal: chick pea flour ('flour' + 'chick pea').

zíd-kum4[UD]-ma: a type of barley flour ('flour' + 'mortar-ground' + nominative).

zíd-milla[IŠ]: a coarse, cheap type of flour ('flour' + 'mountain' or 'scorching' ?).

zíd-sig15[KAL]: cracked barley mixed with wheat flour (?) ('flour' + 'pleasing; valuable'; cf., kaš-sig15).

ZÍD-ŠE: (cf., dabin).

zíd-še-sa: flour from roasted barley ('flour' + 'roasted barley').

zíd-za(-tum): a type of flour, zaatum flour.

itizíz-a: calendar month 11 at Nippur during Ur III.

zíz-AN: (cf., imgtildeagtildea).

zíz-babbar: white emmer wheat ('emmer wheat' + 'white').

zíz-bal: emmer wheat lost in processing ('emmer wheat' + 'to demolish').

zíz...dé-a: cleaning emmer after winnowing ('emmer wheat' + 'to pour' + nominative).

zíz-GÚ-NUNUZ: a form of emmer wheat ('emmer wheat' + 'chick pea' + 'eggs').

zu-a: acquaintance ('to know' + nominative).

zu-hu-ul: pierced (Akkadian sahlu, 'to pass through a hole, to thread').

zú...gaz: to crush with the teeth ('teeth' + 'to crush').

zú-gub: lunch ('teeth' + 'to stand').

zú...HAR: (cf., zú...ur5).

zú...kešda: to oblige ('teeth' + 'to bind, harness').

zú...kud/ku5: to bite ('teeth' + 'to cut').

zú...li9-li9: to laugh ('teeth' + 'to glisten').

zú-lum(-ma): date fruit ('teeth' + 'to be satiated').

zú-lum...mar: (cf., su(11)-lum...mar).

zú...ra(-ra): to bite ('teeth' + usually reduplicated 'to strike, stab').

zú...ra-ah: to devour ('teeth' + 'to strike repetitively, shake').

zú...súd-súd[ŠÌTA]: to gnash the teeth ('teeth' + 'to crush, gnash').

zú...ur5[HAR]: to chew, bite ('teeth' + 'to chew').

zú...zalag: to show one's teeth ('teeth' + 'to shine, gleam').

zur-re-eš...du8: (cf., zar-re-eš...du8).

zur-zur: (animal) nurse; to rock, shake (reduplicated 'to tend; to rock').


Copyright © 1996-1999 John Alan Halloran, Los Angeles, California. All Rights Reserved.
Last modified on August 11, 1999.
http://www.sumerian.org/sums-z.htm