ab: window; opening; niche, nook (cf., aba) [AB archaic frequency: 384; concatenates 2 sign variants (sign also used for èš and aba - for this reading and meaning in Fara period, see Krebernik, Beschwörungen].

áb: domestic cow (a,'water, liquid', + íb,'middle') [AB2 archaic frequency: 288].

ib: corner, angle, nook [IB archaic frequency: 252; concatenates 2 sign variants].

íb, éb: n., middle; waist; loins; thighs.

     v., to be angry; to flare up in anger; to curse, insult.

ub: corner, angle, nook; a small room [UB archaic frequency: 124].

(kuš)ub3,5: a drum.

ub4: cavity, hole; pitfall.

ad: (cf., ada).

ád: (cf., adda4).

ad3,6: (cf., adda).

ad4: lame, cripple.

éd, è; i: to go out, emerge; to send forth; to lead or bring out; to rise; to sprout; to be or become visible; to appear as a witness (the final d appears in marû conjugation) [ED2 archaic frequency: 12; concatenates 2 sign variants].

èd, e11: to exit; to rise; to descend, set; to bring down (or up); to import; to fetch; to remove; to drain (è-dè(-d) in marû).

íd: (cf., ída).

id4,8, it4: (cf., itud).

ud, u4: n., sun; light; day; time; weather; storm (demon) [UD archaic frequency: 419].

     prep., when; since.

úd[ÁŠ]: emmer (wheat).

ud5: (cf., ùz).

ag: (cf., ak).

ég, ék, íg, e: n., levee, embankment, dike, bund (a, e4, 'water', + ig, 'door') [EG2 archaic frequency: 12; concatenates 5 sign variants].

     v., to water; to speak, say (e = sing. marû, plural hamtu, and plural marû; cf., dug4, also di); to do (as auxiliary verb preceded by a noun).

     demonstrative pron., this one; in the immediate vicinity; suffixed to ergative agent.

     prep., locative/terminative suffix - in; toward.

ig: door, entrance [IG archaic frequency: 43; concatenates 2 sign variants].

ug(2): lion; anger, fury; storm.

ug4,5,7,8: n., death; dead person.

     v., to kill; to die (singular and plural marû stem; plural hamtu, which is sometimes reduplicated; cf., úš).

ug6, u6[IGI.É]: n., amazement; gaze, glance (['EYE' + 'HOUSE']).

     v., to look at; to stare at, gaze; to be impressed.

     adj., astonishing.

ágtilde: (cf., ágtildea).

ùgtilde: (cf., ùgtildea).

àh; uh: (cf., lah).

uh(3): lice, louse; nit; flea; moth; insect, parasite, vermin [Uh3 archaic frequency: 14; concatenates 2 sign variants].

úh; uh, ah: phlegm; spittle; slaver, froth; paste; venom; malice.

ak, ag: genitival suffix: 'of' (cf. also, aka).

(gtildeiš)al: digging stick; wooden mattock, pickax; forked hoe with from 2 to 4 teeth; spade [AL archaic frequency: 95].

al: verbal prefix: used immediately before stative verbs; indicates: 1) distance; 2) the speaker is not involved; or 3) the lack of a transitive relationship.

íl: (cf., íla).

il5: (cf., ili5).

ul: n., joy, pleasure, satisfaction; star; flower; bud; ornament; a capacity measure of 36 liters in Presargonic Girsu.

     v., to glitter, shine.

     adj., remote, distant (in time); ancient, enduring.

ùl: (cf., úllu).

ul4: to be quick; to hurry, hasten, harass [? KIŠIK archaic frequency: 21; concatenates 3 sign variants].

am: (cf., àm and áma).

ám: (cf., ágtildea).

àm[A.AN]: the Sumerian enclitic copula - 'to be', occurs after a noun [e.g., William king-is]; who, which, what; (same) as, like (in scholarly lists).

im, em: (cf., imi).

ím: (cf., gim4).

(gi)um: a rope made of reeds (cf., umu).

an: n., sky, heaven; the god An; grain ear/date cluster ('water' + 'high') [AN archaic frequency: 806].

     v., to be high.

     adj., high.

     prep., in front.

en: n., dignitary; lord; high priest; ancestor (statue); diviner [EN archaic frequency: 1232; concatenates 3 sign variants].

     v., to rule.

     adj., noble.

en(2,3): n., time; enigmatic background [EN2 archaic frequency: 17].

     prep., until.

in: he, she; straw; insult, offense, invective [IN archaic frequency: 21].

un: (cf., ùgtildea).

ar: (cf., ara4).

ár: (cf., ára).

àr: (cf., har).

ér, ír: n., tears; lamentation; prayer; complaint.

     v., to weep.

ir(10): n., sweat; smell, odor, scent; perfume, fragrance [IR archaic frequency: 53; concatenation of 4 sign variants].

     adj., scented, perfumed, fragrant.

ir(10), er: v., to bring; to lead away (Emesal dialect for túm, cf., re7).

ir3,11: (cf., arad(2)).

ur: n., dog; carnivorous beast; servant; young man, warrior; enemy (cf., téš) [UR archaic frequency: 114; concatenation of 3 sign variants].

     v., to tremble.

     adj., humble.

ur(2,3,4): to surround; to flood; to throw overboard; to drag (over the ground) (often with -ni-); to erase, wipe out; to shear, reap, mow (reduplication class) (cf., gur10).

úr: floor; base; lap, loins; thighs, leg(s); root; trunk of a tree [UR2 archaic frequency: 78].

ùr: roof; entrance; mountain pass; beam, rafter (cf., ur(2,3,4)) [UR3 archaic frequency: 27; concatenation of 5 sign variants].

ur4: (cf., gur10,14) [? UR4 archaic frequency: 41; concatenation of 3 sign variants].

ur5[HAR]: n., liver; spleen; heart, soul; bulk, main body; foundation; loan; obligation; interest; surplus, profit; interest-bearing debt; repayment; slave-woman (cf., har, mur) [UR5 archaic frequency: 34; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

     inanimate pron., it; these, the referenced; his, hers, theirs.

     v., to chew; to smell; to belch, burp; to roar; to clog, block; to imprison; to be bowed with grief; to rub something in; to rent.

     demonstrative, thus; so; in this way; in the same way; followed by a negation: not at all.

ur11: (cf., uru4).

as: (cf., asa).

us, uzmušen: domestic goose or duck (cf., bibad) (loanword into Akkadian) [US archaic frequency: 18; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

ús, úz [UŠ]: n., side, edge; distance; in geometry: length; height; vertical; perpendicular.

     v., to follow; to drive; to come near to, reach; to let reach; to transport, bring; to join; to be next to, border; to moor, dock; to lean against (cf., gtildeíš).

us5, u8: mother ewe, adult female sheep [US5 archaic frequency: 86].

aš: one; unique; alone.

(5): spider.

áš: n., wish; curse (abbreviated tàš ?, ašte ?) [2 archaic frequency: 5].

     v., to desire; to curse.

3,4,8: six (ía, 'five', + aš, 'one').

eš: n., many, much.

     v., to anoint.

     adv., adverbial force suffix (sometimes followed by -šè).

éš: (cf., éše).

èš: shrine [AB archaic frequency: 384; concatenates 2 sign variants].

5,6,16,21: three.

iš: (cf., iši).

uš, ús: n., foundation (cf., gtildeíš) [GIŠ3 archaic frequency: 16; concatenation of 2 sign variants; archaic frequency: 101; concatenates 2 sign variants].

     v., to support, lift; to stand upon.

UŠ: a length measure, reading unknown, = 6 ropes = 60 nindan rods. [ archaic frequency: 101; concatenates 2 sign variants].

úš: n., blood; blood vessel; death [? ZATU-644 archaic frequency: 65; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

     v., to die; to kill; to block (singular hamtu stem).

     adj., dead.

ùš: placental membrane, afterbirth.

7: spittle.

8: foundation place, base.

11: venom, poison; spittle, slaver; moistening; spell, charm.

az: (cf., asa).

uz: (cf., us).

úz: (cf., ús).

ùz, ud5, ut5: she-goat [UD5 archaic frequency: 109; concatenates 3 signs].

Copyright © 1996-1999 John Alan Halloran, Los Angeles, California. All Rights Reserved.
Last modified on August 9, 1999.