ba: n., share, portion; rations, wages [BA archaic frequency: 523].

     v., to give; to divide, apportion, distribute; to pay (interchanges with bar).

     conjugation prefix, used when the subject is inanimate and/or non-agentive (intransitive).

     possessive or demonstrative suffix -bi plus nominative -a.

(ku6)ba: a shelled creature (such as a turtle or a snail); a scraping tool.

bà: liver; liver model; omen.

ba4: Emesal dialect, cf., gtildeá, 'house'.

ba7: (cf., bar).

be: (cf., bad).

bi, bé: v., to diminish, lessen; to speak, say (accusative infix b 3rd pers. sing. neuter + e 'to speak'); to murmer, chirp, twitter, buzz, hum, howl, cry; mention (cf., biz; bi[z]) [KAŠ archaic frequency: 261; concatenates 4 sign variants].

     pron., it.

     poss. suffix, 'its' applies to inanimate (things and animals) and collective objects.

     demonstrative suffix, this (one), that (one) - in this sense can occur with animates.

     conj., and.

     art., the.

     adv., adverbial force suffix.

     conjugation prefix, differentiates the semantic meaning of certain verbs.

bí: (cf., i-bí).

bi6 [BA]: to tear; to tear off (with -ta-).

bi7: (cf., bìd).

bu(3,6): (cf., bur12; bul) [BU: archaic frequency: 393; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

bu5: to rush around (cf., bul).

da: n., arm; side; nearness (to someone) [DA archaic frequency: 227; concatenation of 4 sign variants].

     v., to hold; to be near; to protect.

     prep., comitative suffix, 'with'; copula, 'and' (mainly in Sargonic date texts).

da5: (cf., dab6).

dé: to pour (often with -ni-); to water; to increase, be full; to shape, form; to instruct; to sink (for other meanings - cf., de6,2; ég; gù...dé).

dè: ashes; marû form suffix - often indicates a present participle to be translated by English -ing or connotes future sense. Used like the terminative postposition -šè after verbal phrases to indicate intent or goal.

de5, di5 [RI]: to advise; to remove (earth clods) (reduplicated).

de6,2, rwedgee6: to bring, carry (-ši- or -ta- denote direction); to continue on (singular hamtu, cf., tumu2,3, lah4; Emesal ga(14)).

di: n., lawsuit, case; judgment, decision, verdict; sentence [DI archaic frequency: 99].

     v., to judge, decide; to conduct oneself; to go; to escape (di-dé used as non-finite marû form of dug4, 'to speak').

di4: (cf., tur).

du: to walk; to go; to come (sing. marû, cf., gtildein, re7, súb) [DU archaic frequency: 299].

dú: (cf., tud).

dù('), rwedgeú: n., work; totality.

     v., to build, make; to mould, cast; to erect something on the ground; to raise up; to set up; to plant; to fasten, apply (dù-e in marû).

du5: (cf., sug5)

du6: (cf., dul(6)).

du7: to be finished, complete; to be suitable, fitting; to be necessary; to butt, gore, toss (reduplication class?) (regularly followed by ) [DU7 archaic frequency: 7].

du8: (cf., duh).

du9: (cf., dun5).

du10: (cf., dùg).

du11: (cf., dug4).

du12: (cf., tuku).

du14: quarrel, struggle, fight.

ga: n., milk (chamber + water) [GA archaic frequency: 245; concatenation of 3 sign variants].

     conjugation prefix, 'also'; 'and then'.

     modal prefix, cohortative, used with hamtu forms.

ga6: (cf., gùr).

ge(2,6): girl.

gi: reed; length measure, reed = 6 cubits = 3 meters (circular + to sprout) [GI archaic frequency: 484].

gi(n), ge(n): v., to act justly; to stabilize, strengthen; to confirm; to establish something as the property of someone (dative) (loanword from Semitic, Orel & Stolbova #1403, *ka'Vn- 'be true', Akkadian kânu; cf., gtildein, gtildeen).

     adj., just; firm; fixed; reliable, trustworthy.

gi(4): to surround, besiege; to lock up (circle + to descend into).

gi(17): n., young man (small and thin like a reed).

     adj., small.

gí, gé: reed mat.

gi4, ge4: to return, come back; to send (back) (with -ši-); to reject, dislike; to restore; to answer (person to whom answer is given resumed by dative prefix, and with -ni-) (circular motion + to go out, send) [GI4 archaic frequency: 37; concatenation of 3 sign variants].

gi7: (cf., gir15).

gi9, ge9: (cf., gir10).

gi17: (cf., gig).

gi25[DUGUD]: (cf., gíg).

gu: string, thread; wool yarn; flax; hemp; snare; net; orig. word for needle (circular + grass-like) [GU archaic frequency: 53].

gú: neck; nape; river bank; side; other side; edge; front; land; pulse, chick pea (for 'land, district' cf., gún; for 'load; talent' cf., gun; gún, gú) (circular + u5, 'on top of'; cf., Orel & Stolbova #982, *gun- "occiput, neck, nape") [GU2 archaic frequency: 34].

gu2,4: (cf., gud(2)).

gù: n., noise, sound; voice.

     v., to exclaim; to utter a cry (said of an animal) (throat + u(3,4,8), 'cries, screams').

gu7, kú: n., food, sustenance; fodder; angle [GU7 archaic frequency: 236].

     v., to eat, swallow, consume, use; to eat up, finish off; to feed, nurse, benefit (with -ni-) (throat + ú, 'food').

gtildeá: basket; house; stable (cf., gtildear) [GA2 archaic frequency: 125; concatenation of 5 sign variants].

gtildeá: (cf., gtildeál, gtildear, gtildee26 and ma(3)).

gtildee: (cf., me).

gtildee6: (cf., gíg).

gtildee26, gtildeá: I, myself; my.

gtildei6: (cf., gíg).

gtildeu10: my, mine.

ha: precative and affirmative verbal prefix: may; let; indeed.

*ha: fish (not the usual word for fish, but the fish sign may get its syllabic reading of HA from *h 'many' + a 'water' = 'fish', an alternative to the usual ku6, kua) [KU6 archaic frequency: 282; concatenates 3 sign variants].

há, hi-a: numerous; diverse; assorted; mixed.

hà, hù, a6, u: ten (usually written: u).

he, hi: to mix [HI archaic frequency: 291].

he(2): abundance; abundant.

hé: precative and affirmative verbal prefix (same as ha).

hu: bird (earlier word than mušen).

ia2,7,9, í: five.

ìa, ì: n., oil, fat, cream.

     impersonal verbal conjugation prefix, indicates distance from speaker.

ia4, i4: pebble, counter.

ka: mouth [KA archaic frequency: 108; concatenates 2 sign variants].

ka: in late usage the difference between a rough measuring and a final measuring of a quantity of grain.

ká: gate [? KA2 archaic frequency: 11; concatenates 4 sign variants].

ka5-(a): fox.

ka9: (cf., kas7 and gtilde-kas7/ka9).

-ke4: often occurs at the end of a genitival compound which functions as the actor or agent of the sentence (ak, genitival suffix 'of', + e, ergative agent marker).

ki: n., earth; place; area; location; ground; grain ('base' + 'to rise, sprout') [KI archaic frequency: 386; concatenates 2 sign variants].

     prep., where; wherever, whenever; behind.

kì: (cf., kìd).

ku: to base, found, build; to lie down (reduplication class) [KU archaic frequency: 64; concatenates 3 sign variants].

kú: (cf., gu7).

kù: (cf., kug).

ku4: (cf., kur9).

ku5: (cf., kud).

ku6, kua: fish (kú, 'food', + a, 'water') [KU6 archaic frequency: 282; concatenates 3 sign variants].

ku7: (cf., kuruš).

ku10: (cf., gíg).

la: abundance, luxury, wealth; youthful freshness and beauty; bliss, happiness; wish, desire [LA archaic frequency: 20; concatenates 4 sign variants].

lá: to penetrate, pierce, force a way into (in order to see); to know; to look after; to have a beard (cf. also, lal) [LA2 archaic frequency: 57].

(gtildeiš)li: juniper/cedar tree [LI archaic frequency: 14].

lí: true measure; fine oil.

li9: to glisten, shine.

lu: n., many, much; man, men, people; sheep.

     v., to be/make numerous, abundant; to multiply; to mix; to graze, pasture (reduplication class [?]) (cf., lug).

lú: grown man; male; human being; someone, anyone, no one; gentleman [LU2 archaic frequency: 85].

lù: to disturb, agitate, trouble; to fluster, embarrass; to stir, blend.

lu5: (cf., lub, lul).

ma: to bind (Emesal dialect for gtildeál; gtildeá) [MA archaic frequency: 250].

ma(3); gtildeá: to go (Akk. alaaku).

(gtildeiš)má: boat [MA2 archaic frequency: 6].

mà: (Emesal dialect for gtildeá-e).

ma4: to leave, depart, go out (cf., mud6).

ma5: (cf., ).

me, mì; gtildee: n., function, office, responsibility; ideal norm; the phenomenal area of a deity's power; divine decree, oracle; cult [ME archaic frequency: 363; concatenates 2 sign variants].

     v., to be; the Sumerian copula; to say, tell.

     poss. suffix, our.

mé: (cf., gíg).

me3,6,7,9: battle [ME3 archaic frequency: 4].

me6: to act, behave.

mi: (cf., gíg).

mí[SAL]: n., woman; female (this pronunciation of the sign found in compound words and verbs or in enclitic or proclitic position, Hallo & van Dijk, p. 85) (cf. also, mu10, munus) (compounds are more likely to preserve an older word) [SAL archaic frequency: 435].

     adj., feminine.

mu: n., name; word; year; line on a tablet, entry; oath (cf., gtildeu10) [MU archaic frequency: 99].

     v., to name, speak (cf., mug).

     prep., because.

     conjugation prefix, suggests involvement by speaker, used especially before dative infixes, preferred for animate and agentive subjects.

mú: (cf., mud6).

mù, ma5[KA׊È]: to mill, grind; to burn (reduplication class).

mu4: (cf., mur10).

mu5: well-formed, beautiful; plump, fattened.

mu7[KA×LI]: to shout, scream, roar; exorcism ?.

mu10[SAL]: woman; female (cf. also, mí, munus) [SAL archaic frequency: 435].

na: n., human being; incense [NA archaic frequency: 105; concatenates 3 sign variants].

     adj., no.

     modal prefix, emphatic in past tense; prohibitive in present/future tense.

ná, nú: (cf., nud).

na4; na: pebble, rock, ordinary stone; stone weight; token; hailstone.

na5: chest, box.

ne(-e), ne.en: this (one); that (one); demonstrative affix [NE archaic frequency: 303; concatenation of 4 sign variants].

nè; ní: strength, vigor, violence; forces, host.

ni; na: he, she; that one (human animate pronoun or possessive suffix) [NI archaic frequency: 263; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

ní: self; body; one's own [NI2 archaic frequency: 34].

ní; ne4: fear; respect; frightfulness; awe.

nì: (cf., gtilde).

ni9: (cf., gtildein).

nu: n., image, likeness, picture, figurine, statue [NU archaic frequency: 101].

     adj. & adv., no, not; without; negative.

     pron., a pronominal prefix in a compound noun describing a person; or a phonetic writing for .

nu11[ŠIR]: light; fire, lamp; alabaster [NU11 archaic frequency: 32].

(gtildeiš)pa: leaf, bud, sprout; branch; wing; feather [PA archaic frequency: 378; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

pà: (cf., pàd).

pa4,5,6(-r): irrigation ditch, small canal, dike.

pú: well, cistern, pool, fountain; depth [PU2 archaic frequency: 37].

ra(-g/h): n., inundation [RA archaic frequency: 25].

     v., to strike, stab, slay; to stir; to impress, stamp, or roll (a seal into clay); to branch out (from the side of a canal); to flood, overflow; to measure; to pack, haul, or throw away (with -ta-).

     prep., dative suffix - for - denotes the animate being towards whom or in favor of whom an action is done.

rá: (cf., re7).

rà: (cf., ara4).

re7; ri6, rá, ir10; e-re7; er, ir: to accompany, lead; to bear; to go; to drive along or away; to stir, mix (plural hamtu; cf., du, gtildein, súb).

ri: v., to throw, cast; to place, pour, put into; to place upon or against (with -ši-); to be located; to touch; to moor a boat; to break open; to expel, remove, throw away, sweep away (with -ta-); to emit; to beget; to blow (said of a storm); to inundate; to exchange; to take; to gather, glean; to plan something (ri is hamtu form, ri-g is marû form, ri-ri-g is plural; cf., rig) [RI archaic frequency: 1].

     adj., far.

     demonstrative affix, that, those; regarding that (where the reference is to something outside the view of the speaker - over yonder).

RI: calendar month 5 at Umma during Ur III.

ru: n., present, gift [RU archaic frequency: 120].

     v., to blow; to give; to send (cf., rúg).

rú: (cf., ).

rù: to be equal in size or rank.

ru5: to send forth shoots, buds, or blossoms; to butt; to gore.

sa: n., sinew, tendon; cord; net; mat; bundle; string of a musical instrument [SA archaic frequency: 54; concatenates 2 sign variants].

     v., to roast (barley) (cf., si; sa).

sá: n., advice.

     v., to approach or equal in value; to compare with; to compete (with -da-).

sa4: to name; to call by name.

sa5: n., red ocher.

     adj., red, red-brown.

sa6: (cf., sag9).

sa7: well-formed.

sa9[MAŠ]: half.

sa10: to be equivalent; to buy (cf., sám).

sa12: (cf., sagtilde).

si: n., horn(s); antenna(e); line; ray(s); light; plowland (cf., sig5) [SI archaic frequency: 417].

     v., to stand upright; to be straight; to be in order; to become completely still.

     adj., regular, normal.

si; su; sa; sa5: v., to fill up; to fill with (with -da-); to survey a field; to inundate; to be full; to be sufficient, enough; to increase; to compensate, repay, replace; to grow weak (probably reduplication class) (cf., sum, sug6, rúg, sig, sig5).

     adj., suitable, fit.

sì, sè: (cf., sig10).

si4, su4, sa11: red [SI4 archaic frequency: 116; concatenates 5 sign variants].

si14: a small pot.

su: n., body; flesh; skin; animal hide; relatives; substitute (as verb, cf., si; sug6 or rúg) [SU archaic frequency: 188; concatenates 2 sign variants].

     adj., naked.

SU: Subarian.

su(3): (cf., sud, sug4) [SU3 archaic frequency: 6].

sú: (cf., zu)

su4: to grow; to multiply.

su5: (cf., suh5).

su6: (cf., sun4).

su7: (cf., sug8).

su8: (cf., súg, súb).

su9; ša4: n., red ocher.

     v., to mourn, grieve.

su11: (cf., ).

su13: (cf., sud4).

sux (TAG): to spread (cf., sud).

ša: to dry up [ŠA archaic frequency: 97].

šà: (cf., šag4).

ša4, še13: (cf., su9).

ša5: to cut, break (reeds).

ša6: (cf., sag9).

še: n., barley; grain; a small length measure, barleycorn = 1/6 finger = 1/30 cubit = 1.67 centimeter in Presarg.-OB period; as a surface area measure = 432 square linear barleycorns = 12 square fingers; as a volume measure = 1/180 gín = 1/3 gín-tur = 1 2/3 sìla = 360 cubic fingers = 1/10800 sar = approx. 1.667 liters; 1/180 of a gín or shekel of silver = ca. 0.0463 grams (cf., še-ga/ge) [ŠE archaic frequency: 639; concatenates 3 sign variants].

     demonstrative affix, may indicate 'there' within the view of the speaker.

šè: n., portion [ŠE3 archaic frequency: 152].

     prep., to, unto, as far as, up to; as regards, concerning; because of, for the sake of; until (terminative suffix and in Old Sumerian period terminative prefix).

še4: (cf., sed).

še6: (cf., šegtilde6).

še7: (cf., šègtilde).

še8: (cf., šéš).

še10: excrement, dung.

še17: (cf., sed4).

še29[LÚ×KÁR, LÚ-KÁR]: (cf., šagtildea).

ši: contrapunctive modal prefix; terminative prefix after Old Sumerian period (cf., šè).

šu: n., hand; share, portion, bundle; strength; control [ŠU archaic frequency: 360].

     v., to pour.

šú: (cf., šúš).

šu4(-g): to stand; to be deployed, set up (plural, reduplication class).

šu4: (cf., šuš).

šu12: (cf., šùde).

ta, dá: n., nature, character [TA archaic frequency: 34; concatenates 6 sign variants].

     prep., from; to; for; by means of (ablative-instrumental noun suffix and verbal prefix; as a noun suffix can be a locative with remote deixis, as in an-ta and ki-ta).

ta6: (cf., taka4).

te, de4: n., cheek, chin (cf., temen) [TE archaic frequency: 199].

te, de4; ti: v., to approach, meet (someone: dative); to attack, assault; to be frightened (alternating class, hamtu stem; cf., te-gtildee26).

tè: an alkaline plant (?); soapwort (?); cardamon (cf., nagtildea).

te8[Á]mušen: bearded vulture.

ti: side, rib; arrow (cf., te, dih, and tìl) [TI archaic frequency: 105; concatenates 2 sign variants].

tu: to interfere (cf., tud and tur5) [TU archaic frequency: 54; concatenates 3 sign variants].

tumušen: (cf., tum12mušen).

tú: (cf., tam).

tu2,3: (cf., tumu2,3).

tu5,17: n., bath.

     v., to wash, bathe; to pour; to make libation (probably reduplication class).

tu6: exorcism; conjuration; exorcistic formula.

tu7: soup; soup pitcher.

tu9: (cf., túg).

tu10,11: (cf., dun).

tu15: (cf., tumu).

za: you (singular).

za: to make noise (occurs as the verb in compounds with repetitive, onomatopoeic syllables symbolizing a repeated monotonous noise or motion (Krebernik, Beschwörungen, p. 70, summarizes the different compounds that occur in ED IIIB texts).

za(2): precious stone, gemstone; bead; hailstone; pit; kernel [ZA archaic frequency: 9].

zà: (cf., zag).

zé[ZÍ]: to cut; to shear, cut hair; to pluck (Emesal dialect for dùg, cf., zil; zé-er).

zi: n., breathing; breath (of life); throat; soul (cf., zid, zìg) [ZI archaic frequency: 116; concatenates 3 sign variants].

     v., (with -r Auslaut) to destroy; to annihilate.

zí: stench; bile; bitter.

zì: (cf., zíd).

zu, sú: n., wisdom, knowledge.

     v., to know; to understand; to inform, teach (in marû reduplicated form); to learn from someone (with -da-); to recognize someone (with -da-); to be experienced, qualified.

     adj., your (as suffix).

     pron., yours.

zú, su11[KA]: tooth, teeth; prong; thorn; blade; ivory; flint, chert; obsidian; natural glass.

zu5: (cf., azu).

Copyright © 1996-1999 John Alan Halloran, Los Angeles, California. All Rights Reserved.
Last modified on August 9, 1999.