dab(2,4,5), dib(2): n., fetter.

     v., to hold; to take, seize, catch; to bind, tie up; to take away; to hire; to receive (motion into open container).

dab6, da5: to surround; to beset, besiege.

dib(2): to traverse, cross; to infringe upon; to pass (by/along); to send over; to wander [? DIB archaic frequency: 6].

dub: n., (clay) tablet; document (motion into open container) [DUB archaic frequency: 229; concatenates 6 sign variants].

     v., to store, heap up; to pour out; to move in a circle; to shake; to sprinkle off, strew (with -ta-); to dye (fabrics) (reduplication class ?).

dúb, túb: to kick, flop (said of fish, newborn animals, and slaughtered animals); to strike, hammer, knock down; to (make) tremble, quake; to rumble [DUB2 archaic frequency: 2].

gaba: breast; chest; side (of a field or mountain) (ga, 'milk', + ba, 'to give').

gib: (cf., gilim[-b]).

gub: to stand; to set, erect, install (singular); to set down in writing; to stand by, to serve (with -da-); to do service (with -ši-); to stand aside (with -ta-) (to be long and throat-like in open container).

gúb: to purify, cleanse.

gùb: left (hand) (cf., hab and húb; the left was the hand that stank from wiping excrement) [GUB3 archaic frequency: 15; concatenation of 4 sign variants].

hab(2): n., foul smell; resin; gall(nut) (attracting many vermin in open container).

     v., to stink; to rot.

     adj., malodorous.

hub, hup: depth; defeat [HUB archaic frequency: 1].

húb, húp: acrobat, athlete; a type of weaver (?); a left-handed or ambidextrous person (?) [HUB2 archaic frequency: 2].

káb: flaxen measuring string ?.

kib: an object, that could be made of gold.

kibx[GIG](-ba): wheat.

libx[Í.UDU]: mutton fat; grease (abundance collected in open container).

lub[LUL](-bi): a cut of meat.

urudulub(-bi): an ax for use in agriculture or as a weapon.

nab: ocean; musician; Elamite word for 'god' (ní, 'fear, respect', + aba, ab, 'lake, sea') [NAB archaic frequency: 10].

nib: cheetah; leopard (, 'fear, respect' + íb, 'to be angry').

pab, pap, pa4: father; brother; man; leader [PAP archaic frequency: 501; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

(gtildeiš)rab, rap: ring; clamp; fetter, shackle; stock; pillory; snare (to slide + open container).

rib: to be higher in rank; to go away (Akk. rabbu).

sub; su-ub: to suck; to suckle; to clog; to bless; to pray (naked flesh + open container).

súb, súg, su8: to lead out; to stand; to travel (plural marû su8-bé, said of two or more, such as a herd; cf., also du, gtildein, re7).

sub2/3: (cf., sipad).

šab (PA.IB): n., middle; stem (cf., sabad; dugšab) [ŠAB archaic frequency: 61; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

     v., to subtract, deduct; to bite off; to snip out, chip out; to fall out, disappear; to apportion (lots); to gather up (portion + divide).

dugšab: pot; pail; vessel.

šib, šip: exorcism.

šub: to cast, throw; to be cast; (with -da-) to drop, let fall; to fall (upon); to fell a tree; (with -ta-) to throw out, remove (šu, 'hand' + bu5, 'to rush around').

šub6[ŠID]: to lick.

šuba(2/3): n., a precious stone - agate (?); a priest (cf., sipad).

     v., to be bathed, clean ('licked clean' ?).

     adj., pretty; shining.

tab: n., companion; pair; sting; fever.

     v., to hold, clasp; to bind; to burn; to tremble, shake; to make haste; to join (with -da-); to be/make double (sometimes reduplicated) (side + open container).

     adv., together (precedes the modified verb).

tubx: (cf., tun).

zib(2): haunch; stamp, brand; distinguishing mark; color (izi, 'fire' + íb, 'thigh').

zubu, zubi: sickle (zú, 'flint; tooth', + bu[r], 'to pull, draw, cut off') [? ZUBI archaic frequency: 2; concatenates 2 sign variants].

bad, be: to open; to let out; to go away; to be at a distance; to drive away; to separate, remove (regularly followed by ; cf., bara4 and semantics of bar) (open container with motion away from) [BAD archaic frequency: 23].

bàd: n., (city) wall [? EZEN archaic frequency: 114; concatenation of 3 sign variants].

     v., to climb, ascend.

bad4: fortress; hardship, difficulty; inarable land.

bìd, bi7: n., anus (open container with motion away from).

     v., to defecate; to urinate.

dida: beer; beer ingredient.

didi: young, small.

gada: flax; linen (clothing) (gu, 'flax, thread', + da, 'to protect') [GADA archaic frequency: 96; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

gíd[BU]: n., length [BU: archaic frequency: 393; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

     v., to lengthen; to draw, pull, tow; to measure out; to manage; to reach out (to take) (to be long and throat-like with motion away from).

     adj., long; distant.

gud, gurwedgex, gu4: n., domestic ox, bull (regularly followed by ; cf., gur(4)) (voice/sound with repetitive processing - refers to the bellow of a bull) [GU4 archaic frequency: 182].

     v., to dance, leap (cf., gu4-ud).

gudku6; gu-udku6: carp ('dancing, leaping fish').

gud(2), gu2,4: warrior.

gùd: nest.

gud8: short (related to but opposite in meaning to gíd).

gúda, gudu4: (cf., gudug).

háda, had(2): v., to dry; to shine brightly (hé, 'let it become', + dág, 'brilliant').

     adj., dry; dried (e.g., fish); white.

húd: morning [UD archaic frequency: 419].

kad4,5: to tie, bind together [KAD4 archaic frequency: 13; concatenates 4 sign variants].

gikid: reed mat [KID archaic frequency: 76; concatenates 5 sign variants].

kid2,7: to pinch off (clay); to remove; to divorce; to dispossess; to open (ground with motion away from; cf., kìr, 'to nip off clay').

kìd, kì: to build; to make; to act (ground/floor plus motion).

kid6, kad6,8: to weave a mat (ground/floor plus motion).

kud, kur5, ku5: to cut off (with -ta-); to breach (a dike); to separate; to levy tax or tribute; to curse (regularly followed by ; cf., gur5, kìr, and gur10) (base with motion away from).

lud: a small bowl; a pestle (abundance + motion).

mud: n., heel; handle; a right-angled tool [MUD archaic frequency: 88].

     v., to give birth; to be afraid; to frighten (closed container with motion out from).

     adj., dark, dim.

múd: blood (closed container with motion out from).

mud3,4: a large vat for beer [MUD3 archaic frequency: 27; concatenates 4 sign variants].

mud5: exultation, jubilation.

mud6, mú: to sing; to blow; to ignite, kindle; to make grow; to sprout, appear (reduplication class) (mu, 'word', + éd, 'to go out').

mud8[NUNUZ-ÁB = LAK 449]: an amphora in the 30-60 liter range with two neck handles, = 50 ku-li, Presargonic Girsu.

(gtildeiš)nàd, ná: bed, couch (ná = nú-a, 'to lie down' + nominative [from R. Englund]) [NA2 archaic frequency: 72; concatenates 4 sign variants].

nud, nú: to lie down; to lie together with (with -da-); to lay down (with -ni-); to sleep; to kill (nu, 'not', + éd, 'to go out').

pad, parwedgex: n., bite, small repast (regularly followed by ; cf., bur and búru) (sprout + repetitive processing) [? PAD archaic frequency: 38; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

     v., to break off.

pàd, pà: to show, reveal; to choose, call; to seek; to find; to declare; to swear, take an oath; to choose out of (with ablative prefix) (pà-dè in sing. marû; pà-pà-dè in plural marû) (sprout, branch + to go out; cp., pa...éd, 'to show; to make appear'; cf., ér...pàd) [PA3 archaic frequency: 30].

(gtildeiš)rad[ŠÌTA]: a tree, possibly a citrus tree [ŠITA3 archaic frequency: 139; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

sed(4,5,6), šed7,10,11,12, še4,5,17,18,23: n., cold water; coolness (si, 'to fill up', + éd, 'to go out').

     v., to cool down; to repose; to be calmed, quieted; to pacify; to abate, subside.

sud, sù; su: v., to be/make remote, far away, lasting; to stretch; to wag (a tail); to rejoice, feel delight; to sip; to sprinkle; to strew; to furnish, provide; to immerse; to sink; to drown (reduplication class) (regularly followed by ) (su4, 'to grow up, multiply', + éd, 'to go out').

     adj., distant, remote; long (duration).

súd: to pound, crush; to gnash (the teeth) (su9, 'red ochre', + motion).

sud4, su13: v., to be long; to prolong, lengthen; to last; to give, present (regularly followed by ) (narrow line + repetitive process) [BU: archaic frequency: 393; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

     adj., long.

šed7,10,11,12: (cf., sed(4,5,6)).

šid, šed: (cf., šita5).

šid3,4,5: (cf., šita(4)).

šùde, šùdu, šùd, šu12: n., prayer, blessing [ŠU12 archaic frequency: 1].

     v., to pray, bless (šu, 'hand', + dé, 'to hail').

tud, tu, dú: to bear, give birth to; to beget; to be born; to make, fashion, create; to be reborn, transformed, changed (to approach and meet + to go out).

túd: to spank; to cane (tu, 'to interfere', + motion).

zid, zi: n., faith, confidence; legitimacy, sanction; truth (zi, 'soul', + éd, 'to go forth').

     v., to strengthen (e.g., the levees of a canal).

     adj., right (hand); righteous; good; firm; faithful; true; legitimate; lawful; appropriate.

zíd, zì[ŠÈ]: flour, meal (life + motion as in grinding).

dag: n., resting-place, dwelling, chamber (motion as in traveling + throat-like chamber) [DAG archaic frequency: 4].

     v., to add; to stretch (out); to roam about.

dág: brilliant; pure; clean ('to go out' + aga(3), 'diadem, circlet, crown').

dig: v., to become moist, soft, workable; to be in a weakened state (motion + throat-like chamber, vagina).

     adj., moist.

dug: standard size earthen jar, pot, jug, vessel, = 30 liters (sìla), except at Presargonic Girsu = 20 liters [DUG archaic frequency: 581; concatenates 5 sign variants].

dùg, du10: n., gladness; knee(s); lap; loins; member (motion + throat-like chamber, vagina).

     v., to enjoy; to be/make enjoyable.

     adj., sweet, good; beautiful; favorable; pleasing; fresh (water).

dug4, du11: n., speech.

     v., to speak; to order, command; to sing; to speak with, converse (with -da-) (singular hamtu form, cf. also, ég); to do (as auxiliary verb preceded by a noun) (nonfinite form = di) (to make a motion in the throat).

(gtildeiš)gag, kak: peg; nail, spike; bone; hinge, joint, knee (reduplicated to be long and neck-like; cf., gub) [KAK archaic frequency: 46; concatenates 2 sign variants].

gig, gi17: n., illness; injury; wheat (cf., kibx) (throat + i, 'cry of pain', + throat) [GIG archaic frequency: 16].

     v., to be/make sick; to be painful to (with dative); to reject.

     adj., painful.

gíg, gtildeíg, gi6, ge6, gtildei6, gtildee6, mi, mé, ku10; gi25     n., night (sounds represent the throat chamber or the mouth as an enclosed dark chamber) [GI6 archaic frequency: 105].

     v., to be black or dark (ku10: reduplication class).

     adj., black, dark (cf., kúkku).

gug: monthly offering; brand; carnelian (with na4).

nindagúg: cake; pressed-date bread (gu7, 'to eat, swallow, consume' + round and neck-like) [GUG2 archaic frequency: 70; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

gug5: hostility, war (might be reduplicated ug5,7,8, 'to kill; to die').

kug, kù: n., silver; precious metal; money; noble (ku, 'to base, build' + aga(3), 'diadem, circlet, crown') [KU3 archaic frequency: 181; concatenates 3 sign variants].

     v., to cleanse, purify; to make cultically pure.

     adj., bright, pure; white; sacred, holy.

lag, lagtilde: piece; lump, gob; clod; bulk size, collected mass (abundance + round).

lug, lu: to swarm (said of birds and fish) (lu, 'to be numerous' + , 'noise, sound').

mug, muk; mu: n., chisel; short, broken wool fibers, tow; sty, eyesore.

     v., to hew out, hollow out; to engrave, carve; to abrade, erode (chamber + ku, 'to build').

mug(2): n., nakedness; pudenda (mu10, 'female' + ig, 'door, entrance').

     v., to be in heat.

nug: a perfume plant.

nig: bitch; lioness (, 'strength, respect, fear' + ig, 'door, entrance'; cf., nib, 'cheetah; leopard').

níg: (cf., gtilde).

nigu, niga(2): fattened (e.g., oxen or sheep); grain-fed (ní, 'body' orgtilde, 'thing', + gu7, 'to feed, eat' + nominative a).

pag, bag[HU]: to cage, shelter (birds) (branches + round chamber).

rig; ri: to bring; to tend; to pull; to glean, pick (reduplication class) (flowing motion such as re7, 'to accompany, lead, drive along' + ig, 'door, entrance').

rìg: mace, weapon (ri, 'to throw' + ug5,7,8, 'to kill').

rig5,7: n., list; temple ward, slave.

     v., to deed, grant (see etymology of sa12...rig7).

rúg [SU or NAM.SU]; ru: to restore; to replace; to pay back; to receive (reduplication class) (ru, 'to give; to send' + entrance).

sag5: (cf., zàg).

sag9, šag5, sig6, sa6, ša6: n., good fortune; (divine) grace, favor.

     v., to be/make good; to please, satisfy; to be friendly (with dative or -da-) (reduplicated in hamtu; sa6-ge in marû).

     adj., sweet, good, pleasant; beautiful; fruitful (sa7, 'well-formed' + ge(2,6), 'girl').

sagi [SÌLA.ŠU.DU8]: cupbearer (loan from Akk. šaaqû).

sig; si(-ga): adj., low; late; small, narrow; weak (cf. si-ga as noun, verb, and adjective in compounds) [SIG archaic frequency: 66].

síg: (cf., siki).

sig3,10,11,18, sag2,3, sì, sè: n., stroke, blow.

     v., to chop down (trees); to strike, hurt, damage; to beat (rhythmically, for instance a drum); to (make) totter, shake, quake; to demolish, raze; to flatten, crush; to remove, doff; to become still, settled (si, 'to stand upright' + ug5,7,8, 'to kill'; cf., sug5).

sig4: sun-dried unbaked brick; brickwork; wall(s) [? SIG4 archaic frequency: 2].

sig5, sag10: (to be) mild, sweet, good; of fine quality (narrow, fine + throat for eating).

sig5,9; šeg5; si: n., silence.

     v., to stay silent; to silence (si, 'to be still' + throat for vocalizing).

sig7, se12(-g), sa7(-g): v., to let live; to create; to live; to dwell; to complete; to be/make pleasant or beautiful; to garden; to pull out weeds; to tear out; to complain (in meanings 'to live', plural stem of tìl) (si, 'upright stalks' + ég, 'to water') [SIG7 archaic frequency: 61].

     adj., pale, sallow; green, yellow.

sig9; si: to be narrow (narrow, fine [ + neck-like]).

sig10, sì, sè: to apply, place, set, put in; to engrave; to make flat, even; to subject, subdue; to sweep along; to do, cause; to surround; to compare; to match (cf., sum, sig3) (combination of meanings such as: sux, 'to spread', sig3, 'to knock down', and , 'to compare').

sig17 (GI): the color of the low or setting sun = reddish yellow or gold (cf., sig).

sigga, sig14, šeg8,9: wild mountain boar ? (cf., šah, šenbar) [ŠEG9 archaic frequency: 10].

sug: swamp; flood basin; lake; fertile land (to fill, inundate + ég, 'levee, dike') [SUG archaic frequency: 15].

súg, su8: to stand (plural marû) (cf., gub, súb) (su, 'body' + 'long and neck-like').

sug4, sù; su: v., to strip naked, lay bare; to empty (su, 'body' + ig, 'entrance'; cp, mug(2),'nakedness').

     adj., empty, destitute.

sug5[GÍN]: to bring low; to knock down (also read dùn, du5 with this meaning) (cf., tùn) (si, 'to stand upright' + ug5,7,8, 'to kill'; cf., sig3,10,11,18, sag2,3, sì, sè) [SUG5 archaic frequency: 67].

sug6, su: to replace, restore, return (a loan, etc.) (reduplication class) (cf., rúg) (to fill up + entrance, chamber).

sug8, sul4, sur12, su7: threshing floor; grain pile; a small animal (cf., su-a, 'cat').

šag4, šà: n., intestines; gut; heart; stomach; abdomen; entrails; content; womb; body; interior, midst, inside; bed of a river; will, volition; mood; meaning, significance (grain/excrement + water/urine + chamber) [ŠA3 archaic frequency: 137; concatenates 6 sign variants].

     prep., in; at.

šag5: to slaughter (ša5, 'to cut, break' + ug5,7,8, 'to kill').

šag5: (cf., sag9).

šeg4: frost; cold shudder, chills.

šeg8/9: snow; ice (cf., sigga).

šug: (cf., šuku).

tag: (cf., taka).

tag4: (cf., taka4).

tigi [BALAgtildcap.NAR]; tígi [NAR.BALAgtildcap]: harp (ti, 'life', + gi4, 'to restore').

túg, tu9: cloth; cloth garment (side + to encircle) [TUG2 archaic frequency: 311; concatenates 3 sign variants].

TÚG: fuller.

tug4: (cf., tuku4).

zag, zà: boundary, border, limit, side; cusp, beginning; territory, district, place; sanctuary; percentage; a measure for fish; shoulder; right (side); front; outside of (life + to encircle) [ZAG archaic frequency: 71; concatenates 3 sign variants].

zàg, sag5, zàgtilde, sagtilde5[ŠID]: to choose; chosen.

zìg, zi: n., wall, partition (úz, 'side, edge', + ig, 'door').

     v., to stand up, rise ; to rise up from (with -ta- or -ra-); to rouse; to go out or make go out; to tear out, uproot, weed; to take out, extract; to spend or credit; to approach; to recruit (zi-zi in marû).

     adj., high.

zug4[KA×LI]: (cf., ú-zug4).

gigtilde4: (cf., gín).

hugtilde, hun(-gtilde): to hire or rent (someone or something); to introduce (to a job); to rest, repose; to abate (many + to mete out to).

gtilde, kin: n., message, order; task, work (to build + to mete out to) [KIN archaic frequency: 9].

     v., to seek, fetch (with locative-terminative -ni-); to send; to order (reduplication class).

lugtildea[PA.gtildcapÁ], lúgtilde[PA], lu9: fault, error; bad; abusive remark; impudence.

nagtilde, na8: n., drink.

     v., to drink; to water, irrigate; to drink out of (with -ta-) (na8-na8 in marû) (, 'body, self', + a, 'water', + ágtilde, 'to mete out to').

nagtildea: soda, alkali, potash (used as soap); an alkaline plant; soapwort (nagtilde, 'to drink', + a, 'water') [NAGA archaic frequency: 125; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

(gtildeiš)nagtildea3,4, nagtildeX[GAZ, KUM]: to crush; (with nominative -a) pestle.

gtilde, nì: property, treasure, valuables, assets; thing; a matter; something; used as a prefix to form concrete nouns (self + to mete out to) [GAR archaic frequency: 409].

sagtilde, sa12: head; point; leader; present, gift; slave; human, individual (, 'to equal'; sa4, 'to name', + gtildee26, gtildeá, myself) [SAG archaic frequency: 420].

     adj., first, first-class, prime.

     prep., in front.

sagtilde2/3: to scatter; scattered (to multiply; to spread + to mete out).

sagtilde5: (cf., zàg).

sagtildea11, sagtilde11, sigtilde18[KIN]: to cut, break, harvest.

šagtildea, še29, heš5[LÚ×KÁR, LÚ-KÁR]: captive (tied up with a rope éše; cf., lú-éše).

šegtilde3,7, še7: rain; to rain (šu, 'to pour' + to mete out).

šegtilde6, še6: to heat, cook, bake, boil; to be hot; to dry a field (redup. class) (ša, 'to dry up' + to mete out).

gtilde: (cf., zàg).

dah, tah: n., substitute, replacement [DAH archaic frequency: 21].

     v., to add; to multiply; to repeat; to say further; to help (motion into numerousness).

dih(2): to sting; sting, barb, point; sickness, fever; torpidity (?) (cf., ti) (motion + cry of pain + insect).

duh, du8: n., residue, by-product; bran (motion + plant, grass + numerous times) [DU8 archaic frequency: 29; concatenates 3 sign variants].

     v., to crack, loosen, open; to untie; to adorn, clothe (reduplicated); to spread; to caulk a boat (with pitch); to gouge (eyes); to bake bread/bricks; to prepare the threshing floor; to remit (a debt).

     adj., free.

lah, àh[UD]; uh: to dry up; to dry out; to sparkle, shine (cf., luh, làh).

     adj., dry.

lah4,5: to bring (plural); to drive off; to plunder, capture, take away; to fling (away) (plural form, cf., de6, tumu2,3) (íla, 'to bring', + , 'numerous').

luh, làh: to be clean, fresh; to clean; to wash; to sweep (la, 'youthful freshness', + he, 'to mix').

mah: v., to be or make large (ama, 'mother of', + numerous) [MAH archaic frequency: 6; concatenates 2 sign variants].

     adj., high, exalted, great, lofty, foremost, sublime.

máh[AL]: an adjective for cows (as opposed to gtilde for bulls).

pah[LUL]: leg.

suh(2,3,5): n., confusion, disorder; encircling wall (cf., (gtildeiš)ù-suh5) (ussu, 'eight', + numerous, cf. the ancillary meanings of imin, 'seven' - as more than seven, eight is confusing) [SUH3 archaic frequency: 4].

     v., to uproot, displace; to relocate, transfer; to become confused.

     adj., carefully chosen.

suh4: reed matting (fine, narrow + plant + numerous).

šah(2): domestic pig (grain + water + numerous (offspring) - pigs efficiently turn feed into food) [ŠAH2 archaic frequency: 39; concatenation of 3 sign variants].

zah: to be calm, tranquil; a mark or impression, esp. on the liver.

zah2,3: n., secrecy.

     v., to flee; to hide; to abandon; to be lost; to perish (describes workers/slaves who have fled state control) (derives from zag, 'boundary, border, district', just as húb relates to gùb).

zeh[SAL.ÁŠ.GÀR]: female goat-kid (ùz, 'goat', + numerous, abundant).

zuh[ZÚ]: to steal, rob (zú, 'teeth' + numerous).

kak: (cf., gag).

siki, síg: hair (of head, beard, body); wool; fur, hide (si, 'long, thin things', + ku10, 'black' ? or kul, 'thick, heavy' ?) [SIG2 archaic frequency: 224; concatenates 12 sign variants].

suku5: (cf., súkud).

šika: potsherd; shell; rind (hand, portion + mouth).

šuku, šug: allotted food portion, ration, provision; allotted field plot (regularly followed by ) (šu, 'portion', + kud, 'to separate').

taka, taga, tak, tag, tà: to touch, handle, hold; to weave; to decorate, adorn; to strike, hit, push; to start a fire; to fish, hunt, catch (can be reduplicated) (te, 'to approach' + aka, 'to do, place, make') [TAG archaic frequency: 48 ?; concatenates 7 ? sign variants].

taka4, tak4, tag4, ta6: to abandon; to disregard, neglect; to divorce; to leave with a person, entrust; to open, leave open (reduplication class - ta6-ta6 in marû) (ta, 'to, from', + ge4, 'turn from, restore') [TAK4 archaic frequency: 128; concatenates 2 sign variants].

tuku, tuk, dúk, tug, du12 , tu12 : n., creditor [KAB/TUKU archaic frequency: 105].

     v., to have, own; to marry; to acquire; to receive, get (in marû reduplicated form); to have a claim against somebody (with -da-); to sing, to play music (da, 'with', + ku, 'to build; to lie down').

tuku4, tuk4, tug4: to tremble; to be angry (probably reduplication class) (tu15, 'wind', + ku4, 'to enter').

bal; ba.al: n., hostility; enemies (cf., bala).

     v., to dig up; to dig out (a ditch); to quarry; to tear down, demolish (ba, 'conjugation prefix' or 'turtle shell', + al, 'digging stick, hoe, spade').

bala('), bal: n., spindle; bar; turn; term of office; rotating fund; annual contribution to the state [BALA archaic frequency: 19; concatenates 2 sign variants].

     v., to revolve; to revolt; to transgress; to change; to transfer, deliver (to someone: dative); to cross over; to pass through; to pour (as a libation; with -ta-); to turn around, go back (bala-e in marû) (ba, 'share', + íla, 'to carry, deliver, bring, support').

bil: to burn; to roast; to heat (soup) (container + to lift, be high).

bìl: sprout, shoot ('it rises').

bul(4); bu(5): to blow; to ignite, kindle; to sprout (onomatopoeic).

dal: n., foot-race.

     v., to fly (towards something, with -ši-; out of, with -ta- or -ra-); to remove; to be far away; to chase (da,'to hold, be near', + ul,'remote, distant' and ul4,'to hasten').

dalla: n., beam, ray (cf., dálla, 'needle' when made with a bright metal).

     v., to be or make bright; to shine.

     adj., conspicuous; excellent.

dálla, dála: needle (da, 'to hold', + lá, 'to pierce').

dél: (cf., dílim).

dellu: mast.

dili, dil: one; single; only; alone; unique.

dul(3,4,5); dal: n., protection.

     v., to cover; to clothe; to protect; to hide (the object covered often takes the locative case) (verb can be reduplicated as in du6-ul-du6-ul-e) (to protect + ornament).

dul(6), du6: mound, heap; sanctuary; ruins, 'tell'; cleft, cave (redup. in plural) (cf. compound sign verb, du6-ul) (dù, 'to build, erect', + ul, 'ancient, enduring') [DU6 archaic frequency: 37; concatenates 3 sign variants].

gal, gtildeal: n., a large cup; chief; eldest son.

     adj., big, large; mighty; great (chamber + abundant, numerous) [GAL archaic frequency: 1004; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

gala[gtildcapÌŠ.DÚR]: cantor, ritual singer, lamentation priest; transvestite (throat + la, 'youthful freshness and beauty').

gal4(-la), gála: vagina, vulva, female genitalia (throat-like chamber + lá, 'to penetrate, pierce').

gala3,4,5: (cf., kala3,4,5).

galla, gullax: police chief (?); a demon (cf., gal5-lá).

gil: (cf., gilim).

gul: v., to destroy, demolish (as preparation for rebuilding); to be destroyed; to obstruct; to extinguish; to cease; to fall upon (with -ši-); to wreck to pieces, to destroy utterly (with -ta-) (reduplication class) (gu7, 'to consume' + ul, 'ancient, enduring') [GUL archaic frequency: 24].

     adj., evil; enormous.

gùl, gal5: to overwhelm.

gtildeala7, gtildeál; gtildeá: to be (somewhere); to be available; to place, put (with -ni- or bi-); to place into (with -ši-); to be with someone (with -da-); to have on one's person (with -da-); to be possible (with -da-); to take an oath; to dwell (gtildeá, 'storage basket' + íla, 'to be high').

gtildeèle: (cf., míli).

hal: n., crotch, upper thigh;secret; divination expert; portion, share (cf., ha-la and pap-hal(-la)) (loans from Akkadian hallu I and pahallu; cf., Orel & Stolbova #1928, *pahal- "leg, thigh" and #1929, *pahal- "break through, split") [HAL archaic frequency: 53].

     v., to stream, run; to divide; to deal out, distribute (hal-ha in marû).

hul(3): n., evil (vermin + abundant, numerous) [HUL archaic frequency: 1].

     v., to destroy; to ruin; to harm.

     adj., bad, evil; hated; hostile, malicious.

húl: n., joy (, 'let there be' + ul, 'joy, pleasure').

     v., to be happy; to rejoice over (usually with -da-, but also -ši-).

     adj., joyous.

kal-(l): v., to esteem, value; to be rare; to make dear, endear; to be appreciated (cf., kalag) (ka, 'mouth' + la, 'youthful beauty, abundance') [KAL archaic frequency: 60; concatenates 3 sign variants].

     adj., excellent; precious, valuable (cf., kalag).

kala3,4,5, gala3,4,5: store-pit; cellar (cf., ki-lal/lá, 'cellar granary, silo' with vowel harmony).

kul: heavy; thick; sexually mature; to bring together, unite (base + abundant, numerous).

lal, lá: v., to be high; to hold; to lift; to carry; to hang (from) (with -ta-); to weigh; to pay; to deduce; to strap, harness (with -ši-); to dress oneself; to place, set; to bind (a reed pillar); to stretch, extend, reach; to load; to lessen, be few, diminish; to accuse, denounce; to fall back, retreat (cf. also, ) (reduplicated íla, 'to carry, support') [LA2 archaic frequency: 57].

     adj., light, deficient; minus (cf. also, ).

(ú)lál: n., noose, lasso.

     v., to hang, suspend; to bind; to silence [LAL2 archaic frequency: 27; concatenates 2 sign variants].

làl: honey; date-syrup (reduplicated la, 'luxury, bliss') [LAL3 archaic frequency: 14; concatenates 3 sign variants].

la(l)'u(2,3,4,5,6,7): debt, owed amount (cf., lá-ìa[NI], 'arrears').

lalla: shortage, deficiency (reduplicated lal/lá, 'light, deficient').

lil: fool, moron (lallation word = unintelligible baby talk; or lal/lá, 'deficiency', + íla, 'to carry').

líl: n., wind; breath; infection; spirit (of a place); back or open country (reduplicated li, 'cedar scent' ?) [? KID archaic frequency: 76; concatenates 5 sign variants].

     v., to infect.

lul, lu5: n., liar; lie; malicious act.

     v., to lie, deceive (reduplicated , 'to trouble, disturb').

     adj., false; treacherous; malicious.

mèl: 'scorching' = heartburn (?).

méli, míli, mél, gtildeèle, gtildeìli[KA×LI]; mèl: throat, pharynx; voice (me,'to say, tell' + ?; cf., mu7[KA×LI]; cf., Semitic root which manifests in Akkadian as qâlu, 'be silent', but which means 'voice' in Hebrew, Syriac, and Ge'ez [P.R. Bennett, Comparative Semitic Linguistics, p. 50).

milla[IŠ]: (cf., zíd-milla).

mul: n., star; constellation; planet; meteor (gtildei6/mi, 'night', + ul, 'star, ornament') [MUL archaic frequency: 6].

     v., to (let) sparkle, shine, glow.

mùl: a destructive insect; caterpillar (mù,'to mill, grind', + ul, 'flower, bud').

pala(2,3): vestments, clothing (of gods and rulers) (cf., pa-pah, 'inner sanctum', and lal/lá, 'to drape' as in túg-nígtilde-lal).

pil(2): to be/make obscure; to be/make dirty, defiled, disgraced (could refer to soot from bil,'to burn').

sal, šal: n., uterus; vulva (narrow + numerous) [SAL archaic frequency: 435].

     v., to be narrow, thin, wide, spacious; to spread; to persist; to belittle.

sil: to praise; to recline (in preparation for the love-making implied by sil5,6).

sil5,6: pleasure, joy, bliss (si,'to stand up like a horn', and si,'to fill', + ul, 'joy, pleasure').

sila, sil; síl, zil; si-il: to cut into; to divide (si, 'long and narrow', + , 'to penetrate, pierce').

sila(3): street; path; trail; road; market place (si, 'anything long and narrow', + , 'to extend, reach').

sìla, sìl, šál: measure of capacity, liter = 0.842 modern liters in the Neo-Sumerian period; measuring pot (si14, 'a small pot', + , 'to weigh'; but cp. also, sal, 'uterus') [SILA3 archaic frequency: 57; concatenates 3 sign variants].

sila4: (male) lamb; bait (cf., kir11) (síg, 'hair, wool', + la, 'abundance') [SILA4 archaic frequency: 73; concatenates 4 sign variants].

sùl: (cf., sun4).

sul4: (cf., sug8).

šal: (cf., sal).

šál: (cf., sìla).

šul, sul: n., young man; warrior; invader; a bad disease involving skin eruptions (probably Akkadian loanword from šalaalu, 'to plunder; to deprive').

     v., to hurry, hasten, speed up (cf., ul4); to rub into the skin (duplication class).

     adj., strong, heroic, proud, splendid.

tal: large jug (sides + abundant).

tál[PI]: n., breadth; understanding (sides; character + abundant).

     v., to be/make wide, broad; to spread, unfold (said about wings, arms).

til: to be ripe, complete; to pluck; to put an end to, finish; to cease, perish (iti, 'moon', + íl, 'to be high; to shine' ?) [? ZATU-644 archaic frequency: 65; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

tìla, tìl, ti: n., life (tu, 'to be born', + íla, 'to lift, carry').

     v., to live; to keep alive; to survive (with -da-); to dwell; to be halted (singular stem; cf. sig7).

til4,5,6, tal3,4,5: cry, shout, scream (te; ti, 'to be frightened', + ?).

tílla: market place; crossroads (tìl,'to keep alive' + nominative) [TILLA2 archaic frequency: 5].

túl: public fountain, well, cistern; lowland (tu5,17, 'bath', + to lift, be high, deep; cf., pú-lá, deep well).

zal[NI]: n., supply.

     v., to be full or abundant; to flow; to continue; to pass, elapse (said about time); to spend the day; to tarry, wait (often with -ni-; with -ta- in a temporal sense) (cf., zalag) (za,'monotonous repetition' + numerous).

zil; zi; zé: to undress; to peel off; to pare, cut; to shell; to flay (cf., sila) (, 'to shear, pluck', + ul, 'joy, pleasure').

zíl: to make beautiful, pleasing; to be loving, gentle, affectionate; to caress (usually reduplicated) (cf., zil).

dam: spouse (husband or wife) (da, 'side; nearness; to hold, protect', + àm, 'to be; who') [DAM archaic frequency: 10].

(gtildeiš)dam: the (curved) beam that connects the bottom of the plow to the pole.

dim: n., bond, tie; rope (dam, 'spouse', modified by i, 'to sprout', that indicates long and narrow as in si) [DIM archaic frequency: 52; concatenates 3 sign variants].

     v., to make fast.

dím[GIM]: to make, fashion, create, build (, 'to build, make', + im, 'clay, mud').

(gtildeiš)dím: post (cf., dim).

dìm: n., sickness demon; pole of a water lift.

     adj., weak (di4, 'small', + àm, 'to be' ?).

dim4: n., begging; tendril, clinging vine (cf., dim).

     v., to approach; to bow; to beg.

     adj., subservient (di4, 'small', + àm, 'to be' ?).

dima, dimmu: news, information; intention, decision (loan from Akk. t.eemum).

dumu: child; son; daughter (dú,'to bear, give birth', + mú,'to sprout, grow'; probably pronounced domu).

gam: n., decline, incline; death; depth (cf., gúr).

     v., to bend, curve; to bow down, kneel (for someone: dative; direction: terminative); to shrivel; to succumb (like a circle + to be).

gàm: n., sickle; handle (like a circle + to be).

     v., to shine, glitter (like a crown, aga(3), + to be).

géme, gtildeéme(?): woman; workwoman; maid; slave-girl (gtildeeš, 'tool', + mí, 'woman').

gim, kim, gin7: prep., equative suffix; as, like; instead of; just as, during (cf., dím) (syllabic spellings indicate both gim and gin7; cf., Akk. kiima with same meanings).

gim4, ím: n., runner(cf., kaš4).

     v., to trot, run (mainly said of animals) (gi4, 'to come back' + im, 'wind').

gim7: (cf., kìm).

gum: (cf., kum).

gúm, gun5: to influence; to neglect, ignore (ga, 'milk' + um, 'old woman').

hum: to wrestle; to be passionate; to bruise, punch; to smash, break; to thresh grain; to paralyze (many + u(3,4,8), 'fight, dispute' + me3,6,7,9, 'battle'; cf., húb, húp, 'acrobat, athlete').

kam(2): n., grasp, grip.

     v., to desire (cf., ki...ágtilde, 'to love').

kàm: n., tablet; disk (of metal or wood) (ka, 'mouth' + imi, 'clay').

     v., to change; to overturn; to banish, drive out (these verbs make me wonder if this became the Sumerian word for a changeable wax-coated writing tablet).

kìm[BU], gim7: willow tree.

kum, gum: n., mortar (for grinding) [GUM archaic frequency: 47; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

     v., to crush, bruise (cf., hum; alternation between h and k/g like the alternation between hab, húb and gùb).

kúm: n., heat; summer; fever (, 'bright' + to be).

     v., to heat.

     adj., hot.

kum4 [UD]: an adjective describing flour [that would be ground in a mortar, kum] and bread.

lam: n., abundance, luxuriance; almond tree; netherworld [LAM archaic frequency: 47; concatenates 3 sign variants].

     v., to grow luxuriantly; to make grow luxuriantly (la, 'abundance' + to be).

láma, lám: an awe-inspiring quality (la, 'abundance' + me, 'function, power').

dlamma, làma: a female spirit of good fortune; tutelary genius (lam, 'to make grow luxuriantly', + a, nominative suffix).

lima, limi, lim: thousand (four hundred greater than gtildeéš×u, 'six hundred').

limmu(2,4,5), lím: four (cp., lam).

lum: n., fertilizer, manure; cloud [LUM archaic frequency: 23].

     v., to be satiated, full; to soften, soak; to grow luxuriantly; to be fertile, productive; to make productive; to bear fruit (abundance + 'grass, plant' + 'to be, behave').

lùm[DUG]: a small drinking pot.

nam: (area of) responsibility; destiny, fate, lot, sign; office; governor; province; manner, way; used mainly as a prefix to form abstract or collective nouns, such as nam-lugal, 'kingship' or nam-mah, 'greatness' (n, 'precise essence', + àm, enclitic copula, 'to be') [NAM archaic frequency: 30; concatenation of 4 sign variants].

nám[TÚG]: planning ability; destiny; prince, noble (time; high + to be) [NAM2 archaic frequency: 375].

nim, num: n., prince; flying insect; highland; east; morning (high + to be) [NIM archaic frequency: 109; concatenation of 4 sign variants].

     v., to be high; to multiply in arithmetic.

     adj., high; early.

     adv., above.

rim4: (cf., kaš4).

sám, šám, sa10: n., equivalent; (barter) purchase; sale price; merchandise (Akk. loanword from šâmu(m), 'to buy, purchase', cf., Orel & Stolbova #2281 *su'um- 'sell, buy') [ŠAM2 archaic frequency: 51].

     v., to buy (with -ši-); to sell (with -ra-, ablative) (sa10-sa10 in marû).

sim, sín[NAM]: to strain, filter; to sift (flour); to see through (fine, narrow + to be).

sim, sínmušen: swallow (Akkadian sinuntu).

sum, šúm, sím, sì: to give, lend (with dative) (sum-mu in marû) (cf., sám) [SUM archaic frequency: 43; concatenates 2 sign variants].

sum4: (cf., sun4).

šim, šem; ším[NAM], sim: n., herb; aromatic wood; resin; spice; fragrance, perfume (see comments on šúm; sam is 'spice' in Hebrew; cf., ir-si-im) [ŠIM archaic frequency: 50; concatenates 2 sign variants].

     adj., fragrant.

šem3,5(zabar): tambourine (halhallatu drum in Akkadian) (many + me, 'functions').

šum: n., saw; sickle with serrated edge (ša5, 'to cut, break' + eme, 'tongue, utensil' ?; cf., šag5, 'to slaughter') [? TAG archaic frequency: 48 ?; concatenates 7 ? sign variants].

     v., to slaughter, butcher.

šúm, sum: garlic; onion (Akkadian loanword from šuumu, 'garlic', related to šammu, 'plant, drug, medicine', Orel & Stolbova 2185, sam-, 'poison').

šum4: (cf., sugtildein).

tam, ta(5), tú: polished; shiny; reflective; pure; reliable (tu5,17, 'to wash, bathe', + àm, 'to be').

tum: work, action; crossbeam; arrow quiver [TUM archaic frequency: 48; concatenates 4 sign variants].

tuma: to break wind, emit flatus (tu15, 'wind', + ma4, 'to leave, depart, go out').

tumu, tum9, tu15: wind; cardinal point, direction (ta, 'from', + , 'to blow').

tumu2,3, tum2,3, tu2,3: to bring; to carry away; to obtain; to be suitable, fit; to prepare (marû singular; cf., de6, lah4) (in marû plural, tùm-tùm[-mu] or túm-túm-mu) (ta, 'from', + ú, 'food', + ma4, 'to leave').

tumu4, tum4[NIM]: to carry (ta, 'from', + ú, 'food', + ma4, 'to leave').

tum12mušen, tumušen: bird of the pigeon and dove family (cf., tum2,3, 'to bring, carry', and the term "carrier pigeon" for a homing pigeon).

zum: to leak, seep, overflow (repetitive motion + closed container; cf., zal, 'to flow', and zar, zur4, 'to spout, flow').

ban: (cf., pana).

bán: vessel; a measure of capacity or volume = 10 liters (sìla) in the Ur III period; = 6 liters at Presargonic Girsu (cf., banda2,4,5) (ba, 'portion, rations', + na, 'human being').

bàn: (cf., bànda).

bun(2), bu(7): n., lamp, light; blister; bag-type of bellows; rebellion (hollow container + nu11, 'lamp' ?).

     v., to be swollen; to blow; to shine brightly (cf., bul, 'to blow; to ignite').

din: (cf., tin).

dun: n., ward, pupil, subordinate.

dun, du24; tun, tu10; tu11: v., to heap, pile up; to scrape, dig (a field, furrow, hole); to strike, smite; to open (to move + to raise high; cf., dul(6)).

dùn: (cf., sug5).

dun(4): n., warp (threads on the frame of a weaving loom).

     v., to lay a warp (onto a weaving loom) (to move + to raise high).

dun5, du9[BÚR]: v., to churn butter; to sway, stagger; to complain (redup. class) (see instead sun5 if the sign is used as an adjective) (to move + to raise high).

gana, gan, kan: n., stand, rack, support; pestle, grinding stone (circular + to raise high) [GAN archaic frequency: 125; concatenation of 4 sign variants].

     v., to bring forth, bear.

gána, gán: tract of land, field parcel; (flat) surface, plane; measure of surface; shape, outline; cultivation (cf., iku) (cf., Orel & Stolbova #890, *gan- "field") [GAN2 archaic frequency: 209].

genna, gena, ginna, gina[TUR+DIŠ]: constant; regular; small; the planet Saturn (possible loan from Akk. kajjamaanu, kajjaanu, and kaanu 'constant'; cf., gi(n), ge(n) and gtildein, gtildeen).

gín, gigtilde4: small ax(-head) used as money; shekel (of silver) = ca. 8.333 grams; a surface area measure, 1/60 square nindan (sar) = 180 surface še = 2160 (=36,0) square fingers; a volume measure, = 0.3 cubic meters (Akk. kiinu 'true measure', cf., Orel & Stolbova #1459, *kin- "count") [TUN3 archaic frequency: 96; concatenates 3 sign variants].

gìn: lapis lazuli (igi, 'eye', + na4, 'pebble, stone', but cf., gùnu, 'decorated with colors, lines, spots').

gin7: (this is sometimes the preferred form, but cf., gim).

gun[GÚ-UN]; gún, gú: back of a man's neck = load, burden = a talent in weight = 30 +/- 2 kg.; tribute (, 'neck; nape' + ùgtildea, un, 'people'; cf., ).

gún, gú: land, region, district (, 'edge' + ùgtildea, un, 'people, population').

gùnu, gùn: n., dot, spot (circle + discrete point; cf., ugun) [GUN3 archaic frequency: 23; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

     v., to decorate with colors, lines, spots; to sparkle; to put on antimony paste makeup.

     adj., dappled; striped; speckled, spotted; spangled; variegated, multicolored; embellished, decorated; brilliant.

gun5: (cf., gúm).

gtildein, gtildeen: n., steadiness, reliability, constancy (to be + at a distinct point).

     v., to go; to send; to come (with dative or -ši-) (sing. hamtu, cf., du, re7, súb) (Akk. gana 'come!', cf., Orel & Stolbova #892, *gan-/*gin- "go").

     adj., ordinary; firm, solid.

hun: (cf., hugtilde).

kana3,5, kan3,5: n., apprehension, worry; affliction, trouble (ka, 'mouth' + ní; ne4, 'fear').

     v., to be troubled.

uruduKIN: (cf., gur10,14; ur4).

kin: (cf., gtilde).

na4kín[HAR]: hand mill (saddle quern for grinding); millstone (base/ground + stone) [KIN2 archaic frequency: 11; concatenates 4 sign variants].

kun: tail; reservoir, storage basin, outlet (of a canal); grasp (base/seat + high) [KUN archaic frequency: 2].

(gtildeiš)kun4,5: ladder; stairs, staircase; threshold, slab, doorsill (base/ground + high).

mana, mìna, man, mìn, men5: partner; companion; equal; two (cf., mina, 'two').

men(4): crown, tiara (metaphor of divine en-ship) (me, 'function, office' + en, 'lord') [MEN archaic frequency: 48; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

mén: both; alike (cf., mana).

men2,3: I, myself (cf., me-en).

min(3,5,6): (cf., mina and mana).

mina, min(5,6): two; second (, 'woman', + na, 'distinct things', because a woman has two breasts).

munu(3), mun: salt [MUN archaic frequency: 24 ?; concatenates 5 ? sign variants; MUNU3 archaic frequency: 15].

múnu: a caustic salt (, 'to make grow', + nu11, 'fire'; saltpeter is the oxygenating ingredient in gunpowder).

munu4,6: malt - soaked and germinated grain for use in brewing (, 'to mill', + nud, 'to lie down, sleep').

munux, mun4 [ŠEŠ]: alkaline, brackish.

nin: queen, mistress, proprietress, lady; lord (reduplicated , 'fear; respect; frightfulness; awe') [NIN archaic frequency: 75].

nin9: sister (reduplicated , 'self; body; one's own').

mušennínna: nocturnal bird - owl (nin, 'fearsome lady', + a, nominative suffix; the predatory owl with its human-like face probably gave rise to the demon Lilith myth; cf., dnin-nínnamušen).

ninnu, ninu: fifty (nimin/nin5, 'forty', + hà/u, 'ten',).

ninni5: a rush used in basketry; bulrush (reduplicated nin or nin9, where reeds and rushes were seen as belonging to a young woman goddess similar to the grain goddess Nisaba).

nun: n., prince, noble, master (, 'fear; respect',+ un, 'people' ?) [NUN archaic frequency: 652; concatenation of 4 sign variants].

     v., to rise up (n, 'to be high',+ u5, 'to mount; be on top of; raised high').

     adj., great, noble, fine, deep.

pana, pan, ban: bow (pa, 'branch', + na4, 'pebble, stone') [BAN archaic frequency: 27; concatenates 2 ? sign variants].

rín[ERIM]: to be/make bright (reduplication class); to attach, join, hitch (cf., érin, rín) (ara4; ar; rà, 'bright', + to be high).

sín: (cf., sim).

sun: (cf., sugtildein).

sún: aurochs cow, wild cow; beerwort (su, 'to fill, be sufficient',+ un, 'people').

sun4, sum4, sùl, su6: chin; lower lip; beard (cf., si, 'long, thin things', and tùn, 'lip') [SU6 archaic frequency: 1; BU3 archaic frequency: 21].

sun5[BÚR], su16: n., modesty.

     v., to enter (plural ?; cf., kur9).

     adj., humble; with bowed head; dominated (su9, 'to mourn, grieve' + , 'fear; respect').

sun7[KAL]: quarrel, discord.

šen[SU×A]: n., a copper pan, pail, vessel; mirror (?) (liquid + stone) [ŠEN archaic frequency: 66; concatenates 4 sign variants].

     adj., clear, pure; polished, shiny.

šén: verdigris.

šún[MUL]: n., star.

     v., to shine brightly.

tán[MEN]: to become clean, clear, light, free (ta, 'nature, character' + an, 'sky, heaven').

ten; te-en: n., cold, coolness (te, 'to approach, near' + en, 'time' referring to shorter days ?).

     v., to trample, extinguish; to soften, allay; to cool (te-en-te in marû).

tin: n., life; wine [TIN archaic frequency: 93].

     v., to cure; to be healthy; to live.

tun(3), tu10: to constrict; to defeat; to massacre; to break up, smash (cf., dun).

tùn[GÍN]: n., pocket, pouch, case; wrap, bandage; stomach; lip (te, 'cheeks' + nu, 'likeness') [SUG5 archaic frequency: 67].

     adj., intact, bound.

pap: (cf., pab; pa4).

rap: (cf., (gtildeiš)rab).

sipa: (cf., sipad).

bar: n., (out)side; soul, innards; fleece [BAR archaic frequency: 306].

     v., to open; to uncover, expose; to see; to remove; to be absent; to release; to peel, pare, shell; to select; to divide; to split; to distribute; to keep away (with -ta-) (container plus to expel, remove as in ri).

     adj., foreign.

     prep., because of.

bár: (cf., barag).

bar6,7: v., to shine, be bright; to break (of the day) (cf., bar, 'to expose', which refers here to the sun; and cf., ara4, 'to shine; to blaze').

     adj., white.

bára: (cf., barag).

bàra, pàra, bàr, pàr[DAG]; para4, par4[KISAL]: to stretch or spread out; to pass over; to be stretched or spread out (cf., bárag) (interchanges with búru) (ba, 'to apportion, divide', + ra(-g/h), 'to overflow'; cf. compound word, ba-ra(-g)) [BARA3 archaic frequency: 13].

bara4[BAD]: to spread out, open wide; released; separated.

bara5,6: (cf., barag).

bir: to scatter, mix; to wreck; to murder (ba, 'to divide', + ir10, re7, 'to stir, mix') [BIR archaic frequency: 9; concatenation of 3 sign variants].

bir(2,4): n., mistiness (of the eyes) (ba, 'inanimate conjugation prefix', + ér, ír, 'to weep' and ur5, 'to smell', with possibly a hidden meaning of 'to dry' for Vr or ara4 as also seen in dúr).

     v., to sniff, wrinkle one's nose; to dry up, shrivel up.

     adj., flaccid, shriveled up (said of a penis).

bìr[ERIM]: team (of donkeys/animals) (ba, 'inanimate conjugation prefix', + ir10, 'to accompany, lead; to bear; to go; to drive along or away', the plural hamtu for 'to go', cf., re7) [?? BIR3 archaic frequency: 23; concatenation of 3 sign variants; ZATU-143 ERIM archaic frequency: 175; concatenation of 3 sign variants].

bir4,5: locust; sparrow (cf., bìr for animals in plural numbers).

bir6,7: to rip to pieces; to break (cf., bir for similar semantics).

bir9[NE]: to blaze, flame up (cf., bar6,7 for similar semantics).

bur: meal, repast; stone bowl, pot (cf., búru) (ba, 'portion, rations, open container', + úr, 'lap, thighs, legs') [BUR archaic frequency: 51; concatenation of 4 sign variants].

búru, bur(2): n., burin; thread [BUR2 archaic frequency: 45].

     v., to open, release, loosen; to spread out (a garment); to dissolve; to interpret (a dream); to dispose of; to pay (with -ta); to knap, flake off (flint); to tear out; to despoil (reduplication class; cf., bar, bur12) (cf., bar and bàra for similar semantics).

bùr: a square surface measure = 6.48 hectares = 18 iku = 3 area éše = 1800 sar = the amount of land that supported a family (also cf., bùru) (from Akkadian buuru IV, "hunger", but cf., bii/eeru IV, "space, distance").

bùru(-d), bùr: n., opening; receptacle; hole; mine; depth (Akk. buuru 'cistern, well', cf., Orel & Stolbova #164, *ba'Vr-/*bu'Vr- "well, pit"; could also be Sumerian from, ub4, 'cavity, hole', + úr, 'floor' - the u vowel especially correlates with round objects or openings).

     v., to receive; to bore through, pierce; to break into (a house).

buru4,5mušen: raven ?, crow ?; sparrow ?; locust, grasshopper (cf., bìr for animals in plural numbers, bir for destructive wreckers, and bur12, bu(3,6) + nominative for anything that harvests or destroys plants).

buru7[GURUN]: fruit tree; fruit; berry [rare word].

buru8: to vomit (Akk. arû IV, parû III, 'to vomit', cf., Orel & Stolbova #120, *'or- "vomit").

bur12, bu(3,6): to tear, cut off; to pull, draw; to be drawn; to tear out, uproot; to remove, keep away (ba, 'to divide' + úr, 'base, root') [BU archaic frequency: 393; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

buru14, bur14: harvest; hot season, harvest time (bur12, 'to tear, cut off', + either ú, 'plant' or a, nominative suffix with vowel harmony).

dar: n., francolin, pheasant [DAR archaic frequency: 36; concatenation of 4 sign variants].

     v., to slice, split; to shatter (reduplication class) (da, 'sides', + ur4, 'to shear, reap').

dára, dár: n., belt, sash (compare dur, 'bond, tie').

     v., to bind, pack.

dàra, dàr: (cf., durah).

dara4, dar4: dark, dim; high (compare dirig, 'to be darkened; to go over') [DARA4 archaic frequency: 81; concatenation of 9 sign variants].

diri, dir: (cf., dirig).

dur: bond; string, thread; strap, tie; amulet chain, necklace; umbilical cord (da, 'arm, side', + ur, 'to surround') [DUR archaic frequency: 58; concatenates 2 sign variants].

dúru, dúr: (cf., duruna).

(anše)dùr(ùr): he-ass; donkey foal (pack animal - cf., dur, 'strap').

duru5, dur5[A]: irrigated; moist; fresh; supple (dé, 'to water' + ru5, 'to send forth shoots'; cf., a-dé, 'fresh').

(anše)dur9[ŠUL]: donkey stallion (usually written du24-ùr or dur9(ùr)) (cf., anšedùr(ùr)).

dur10: ax (compare dar, 'to slice, split').

gar: (cf., gtildear).

gàr, kàr: knob, pommel; hair lock on the back of the head (sign of a slave); cake; filled sack (of silver ?) = purse; used for round and high objects ('circular' + 'to send forth; to protect').

gar4[GUD/GUrwedgcap]: early (the 'bull of the sun', Mercury, can only be seen right before sunrise; cf., gu4-ud).

gara2,9,10, gar2,9,10,11,12: thick milk, cream; cheese (cf., ga-àr-ra) [GARA2 archaic frequency: 106; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

gir, kir: cow or mare of intermediate age; a fish, possibly a carangid (ki,'place', + ir(2), 'fluid secretion') [GIR archaic frequency: 28; concatenation of 4 sign variants].

gir4, kir13: kiln (for lime or bitumen); oven (cf., udun) (ki,'place', + ara4, 'to shine, blaze') [GIR4 archaic frequency: 1].

gir5: (cf., gtildeiri5).

gir10, gi9, ge9[NE]: anger, fury (compare bir9).

giri11, gir11[KEŠDA]: to be tidy, neat (cf., hir) (gi4,'to restore', + ri, 'to sweep away').

gir15, gi7 [KU]: noble; domestic, civilized; belonging to the native in-group (circle + city) [ŠE3 archaic frequency: 152].

giri17: (cf., kìri).

gur, kùr: n., reed basket; measure of capacity - Biblical kor (= 300 sìla in Old Akkadian and Neo-Sumerian periods; = 144 sìla in Old Sumerian Girsu/Lagash; in admin. texts = 2 bariga) [? GUR archaic frequency: 14] (circle + to reap; to send).

     v., to make a circular motion; to come back; to return; to give back; to protest, contradict; to reject evidence (in a legal case); to turn away from (object has ablative -ta); to wipe off.

gúr: n., sphere; circle, ring; loop; hoop (circle + ur, 'to surround').

     v., to bow down, submit; to curb, subdue; to die (cf., gam).

gùr, ga6: to bear, carry; to be full, loaded, laden (Umma reading for íla sign, cf., mir) (circular container + er, 'to bring'; cf., gur, kùr, 'basket').

gur(4), kur4, gir8: v., to be or feel big; to be endowed with; to turn, roll over; to run; to gallop; to grind (reduplication class) (circle + flowing motion).

     adj., thick, coarse; fattened, plump; bright, preeminent; very strong; great (cf., gud, gurwedgex, 'bull').

guru5, gur5, kur12: n., fangs.

     v., to separate, divide; to cut, pull (weeds) (, 'neck; nape' + ra, 'to strike'; cf., kud, kur5; and gú-gur5...dug4/du11/e).

guru6: (cf., kára).

guru7, gur7, kara6: grain heap; granary, silo; a capacity measure, ca. 909 liters (cf., gur, 'basket').

guru8, gur8 [TU]: high; deep.

(urudu)gur10,14; ur4: n., copper sickle (semi-circle + flowing motion).

     v., to reap, harvest; to pluck; to shear (sheep); to gather in; to catch (in a net); to gather together; to join in assent (probably reduplication class) (cf., sagtildea11[KIN]).

gtildear: n., storeroom; form, appearance (to be + to send) [GAR archaic frequency: 409].

     v., to store, accumulate; to deliver, deposit; to put, place, set down upon; to make, establish, restore (with -ši-); to remove and set elsewhere (with -ta-); to expel (with -da-) (gtildeá-gtildeá in marû).

gtildeíri, gtildeír: n., knife, dagger, sword; thorn; scorpion; lightning flash; road; expedition, trip (gtildeiš, 'tool', + ra, 'to strike, stab, slay' with vowel harmony) [GIR2 archaic frequency: 114].

     v., to stab; to fulgurate, lighten, flash.

gtildeìri, gtildeìr: n., foot, feet; step; way, path (gtildeiš, 'tool', + uru9, 'support'; úr, 'leg(s)'; cf., gtildeidri and gtildeušur for similar and different phonetic developments).

     prep., via.

gtildeiri2,3, gtildeir2,3: n., booty; captive (additional associations of 'road' and 'sword').

     v., to pillage; to capture; to drive away; to take away; to be taken.

gtildeiri5, gtildeir5[KAŠ4]: n., refugee, stranger.

     v., to run, trot; to seek refuge.

gtildeiri16, gtildeir16 [gtildcapÌR×KÁR]: fortress, refuge.

har, àr, ur5: n., millstone; ring; link (in a chain); coil or spiral of silver or other precious metal that can be worn as a ring or bracelet and was used as money (cf., kín, kikkin, hara, ara3,5, ur5) (many small explosions + sliding motion) [UR5 archaic frequency: 34; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

     v., to chew.

     adj., small; young.

hara, ara3,5: n., miller (reduplicated har/àr, 'millstone').

     v., to pulverize (in a mortar); to destroy; to make groats.

     adj., ground, milled, crushed, pulverized.

hara5: spout; vessel with a large spout (ha, precative prefix, + ra, 'to branch out from the side of').

hir[KEŠDA]: n., produce, yield (abundance + to go out + to flow).

     v., to squeeze, tighten (cf., giri11).

hur, ur5[HAR]: n., hole; limb, stem, handle (hù, ten, + ra, 'to impress into clay', where a round hole was the symbol for 10).

     v., to scratch, draw, sketch, inscribe, outline; to grind; to dig (many small explosive sounds + ùr, 'to drag').

kar: n., embankment; quay-wall; mooring-place; harbor; marketplace; port authority (place + water + to flow, send, take, drive away; cf., kur9, 'entrance') [KAR archaic frequency: 7].

     v., to take away; to steal; to raid, capture, pillage; to escape, run away; to avoid.

kára, kár, guru6: to encircle, besiege; to impute, accuse; to shine, illuminate; to be bright (of light, day) (reduplication class) (sometimes written for kúr) (place + ur, 'to surround' + a, nominative ending, and ara4, 'to shine') [? KAR2 archaic frequency: 68; concatenates 2 sign variants].

kàr: (cf., gàr).

kir: (cf., gir).

kír: a large vessel; beer keg (ki,'place', + ir(2), 'fluid secretion'; cf., gir, kir, 'cow or mare').

kìr[LAGAB]: to nip off (clay) (ki, 'earth', + ur4, 'to shear, reap'; cf., kud, kur5; and kid2,7, 'to pinch off').

kiri3,4, kir4, giri17: nose; muzzle (of an animal); hyena (cf., kir6,4) (ki, 'place', + ir, 'smell').

kir6,4: stream dam, weir (cf. also, kiri3,4) (ki,'place', + ir(2), 'fluid secretion'/ra, 'to flood').

(gtildeiš)kiri6: orchard, garden, palm grove (ki, 'place', + ru5, 'to send forth shoots, buds, or blossoms').

kir11[MÍ.SILA4]: female lamb [KIR11 archaic frequency: 3].

kir13: (cf., gir4).

kur: n., mountain; highland; (foreign) land; the netherworld (ki,'place', + ùr, 'roof, mountain pass'/úr, 'root, base') [KUR archaic frequency: 145; concatenates 3 sign variants].

     v., to reach, attain; to kindle; to rise (sun).

kúr[PAB]: n., stranger; enemy; hostility (from kur,'mountains, foreign land').

     v., to be different; to change; to break a seal (often with -da-) (kúr-re in marû).

     adj., strange, alien; hostile; in the future.

kùr: (cf., gur).

kur4: (cf., gur4).

kuru5, kur5: (cf., kud).

kur6: (cf., kurum6).

kuru7, kur7: (cf., kurum7).

kur9, ku4: n., entrance (ki,'place', + ùr, 'entrance').

     v., to enter; to bring; to deliver (-ni- specifies delivery location); to enter before someone (with dative prefix); to let enter (with -ni-); enter into the presence of (with -ši-); to turn round, turn into, transform (with -da-) (singular [?] reduplication class stem; cf., sun5).

liru, liri: (cf., lirum).

(gtildeiš/urudu)mar, gtildear7: n., wagon; winnowing shovel; spoon (ma(3); gtildeá,'to go', + flowing motion; Akk. marru "shovel; spade"; Orel & Stolbova #1738 *mar- 'hoe') [MAR archaic frequency: 117; concatenates 2 sign variants].

     v., to sow, scatter; to coat, apply; to don; to immerse; to enclose, lock up.

mar; mur: worm; earthworm.

mer(2), mir(2); gùr: n., storm wind; violent storm; north(wind); anger; belt, waistband; an encircling snake (var. of gùr) (me3,6,7,9,'battle', + to flow / circle + ur, 'to surround') [MER archaic frequency: 48; concatenates 2 sign variants].

     v., to blow fiercely; to get angry.

     adj., fierce, angry, furious.

mur, ur5 [HAR]: n., lungs; liver; fodder for fattening; lattice, grate (mu7,'to shout'/mud6, mú, 'to sing; to blow' + úr, 'root, base').

     v., to surround; to guard; to shout; to grind, mill.

     demonstrative, thus; so; in this way.

mur7,8: (cf., murgu).

mur10, mu4: to clothe; to dress oneself (reduplication class [?]) (mu10,'woman', + ur, 'to surround').

muru5[MÍ.U4.RU6 = SAL.UD.EDIN]: brother-in-law (mu10,'woman', + rù, 'equal in rank').

muru9: fog, mist, haze (mi,'to be dark', + to flow).

murux [GI.KID.MAH]: reed mat.

nar: singer; musician (loan from Akkadian naaru II, "musician", which derives from Akk. naaru I, "river" in the same way that Sumerian nab means both "ocean" and "musician") [NAR archaic frequency: 69].

nir, ner: n., frog; omen.

     adj., proper.

nir: n., prince, lord [NIR archaic frequency: 45; concatenates 2 sign variants].

     v., to stretch, reach, extend; to raise high; to winnow, clean grain; to overcome, vanquish (to be high + to go out + to flow).

     adj., victorious.

na4nír[ZA.GÍN]: a precious stone with black and white flecks.

par3/4: (cf., bàra).

sar, šar: n., vegetable(s) [SAR archaic frequency: 102; concatenates 3 sign variants].

     v., to insert, enter; to begin; to write; to pay, deliver punctually; to disturb someone; to drive (with -ni-); to drive, chase away (with -ta-); to make hurry, run (to be skilled, precise + flowing motion; for 'to drive away', cf., ús, 'to follow, drive', but meaning probably derives from the act of chasing vermin from the vegetable garden, cf., kar for such a progression from the noun to the verb).

     adj., driven out, pursued.

sar, šar: a surface measure, 'garden plot' = 1 square ninda = 60 surface shekels = 1/100 iku = 4 square reeds = 144 square cubits = 36 meters2; a volume measure of one square ninda times 1 kùš = 144 kùš3 = ca. 18 cubic meters = 1,0 gur [= 60 gur] of capacity = 1,0 gín in weight.

sár: (cf., šár).

sír: n., density.

     adj., dense; weak, feverish (si; su; sa; sa5,'to be full; to grow weak', + ir(10), 'sweat').

sir5; sur: (cf., zara5).

sur: n., a garden plant; rushes; chaff, chopped straw [? SUR archaic frequency: 6].

     v., to delimit, bound, divide (reduplication class ?)(cf., šur) (si, 'long and narrow', + ur, 'to surround'; cf., sila, sil; síl, zil; si-il, 'to cut into, divide').

súr: (cf., sumur).

sùr: ditch; deep furrow; drain (to fill, inundate + to flow; contrast sug, 'flood basin').

suru5, sur5: to hang, suspend; to hover; to wear (cf., sur6,7).

sur6,7: height; depth; foundation pit (ús, uš, 'height; foundation; to support, lift', + uru2,5,18, 'high, deep').

sur8: (cf., zar).

sur12: (cf., sug8).

šar: (cf., sar, šar).

šár, sár: n., totality, all; world; horizon; ball, counter, token; the number 3600 = 602 (many, much + àr, 'ring, coil').

     v., to be many; to multiply or mix (with -da-); to make abundant; to slaughter; to request, implore (reduplication class).

     adj., numerous; innumerable.

šár: a military officer = commander of 3600.

šar8 [NI]: to interpret, explain.

šér, šír: to shine brightly (cf., sír) (Akkadian loan from šaraapu(m), 'to burn').

šèr, šìr: n., decision.

     v., to bind; to decide (éše, 'rope', + ur, 'to surround').

šir, sir4: testicles (many + to go out + to flow; cf., hir, nir, and gtilde2,3) [ŠIR archaic frequency: 24; concatenates 2 sign variants].

šìr[EZEN]; šur: n., song; lament (Orel & Stolbova #2258 *sir-/*sur 'sing').

     v., to sing.

šìr: (cf., šèr).

šur, sur: to rain; to produce a liquid; to flow, drip; to extract seed oil; to process wine and juices; to press (out); to spray out; to brew (beer); to submerge; to flash, gleam (šu, 'to pour' + to flow; cf., šegtilde3,7).

šúr: (cf., sumur).

tar: v., to cut; to decide; to determine; to inquire; to smoke; to break, destroy (ta, 'from', + ur4, 'to shear, reap'; cf., dar and nam...tar) [TAR archaic frequency: 56; concatenates 2 sign variants].

     adj., deliberate, judicious.

tir: forest, grove, thicket (ti, 'arrows' + ùr, 'beams, rafters'; early example of asyndetic hendiadys).

tur: n., child; young (of herd animals); second in rank (tu, 'to be born', + ùru, 'to watch, guard, protect') [TUR archaic frequency: 272].

     v., to be/make small; to be insufficient; to reduce.

     adj., small, little, young.

tùr; tur5: birth-hut; byre; sheepfold, pen; stable; a frequent metaphor for a temple, sanctuary (cf., tur) [TUR3 archaic frequency: 121; concatenates 3 sign variants].

tur5, tu: n., newborn; weakness; sickness.

     v., to be or become sick.

     adj., weak; sick.

zar, zur4, sur8: to tap, pour; to spout, flow; to exude; to spin (a cocoon) (cf. the graphically similar sign, sug8) (repetitive motion + to flow) [? ZAR archaic frequency: 15; concatenates 4 sign variants].

(gtildeiš)zar: wagon shaft (cf., za-ra) (Akkadian loanword from ,serru(m) II).

zàr[SUM]; zar[LAGAB×SUM]: sheaf, sheaves (rolled up and bound stalks and ears, cf., zara5 and zar).

zara5, zar5; sir5; sur: to spin, twine (yarn or thread); to roll up (repetitive motion + to flow).

zur: n., offering, sacrifice; prayer (repetitive activity + to flow/protect).

     v., to furnish, provide; to rock (an infant); to arrange, tend; to offer; to pray.

dusu: transportation basket, used in working at the lower levels in excavating a canal; corvée (du, 'to walk', + si;su, 'to fill up').

dúsu [ANŠE.LIBIR]: an ass or equid used as a draft animal in front of plows and wagons (du, 'to walk', + usu, 'strength').

kas7, ka9: deduction; settlement of accounts; possession (back-formation from gtilde-kas7/ka9).

kisi: chamber pot (kàš, 'urine', + si14, 'a small pot').

mes, mèš: young man; prince; son; hackberry tree in the elm family (me, 'endowment', + usu, 'strength'; Akkadian loanword - meesu I, 'hackberry tree'; cf., Orel & Stolbova #1766 *mi'es- 'tree') [MES archaic frequency: 32].

nisi, nissa: (cf., nisig).

sisi (ANŠE.KUR.RA): horse (reduplicated si, 'to stand upright').

šes: (cf., šeš).

diš(2), deš: one (dili, 'single', + aš, 'one'; the form resembles that of the semantically appropriate male body part, gtilde2,3, gtilde2,3; cf., mina, min(5,6), 'two').

gtildeiš, gtildeeš: n., tree; wood; wooden implement; scepter; tool; organ; plow; natural phenomenon (describes a trunk that goes out into many branches and leaves) [GIŠ archaic frequency: 381].

     adj., describes an animal assigned to the plow (sometimes gtildeiš-šè).

gtilde2,3, gtilde2,3, uš: penis; man (self + to go out + many; cf., nitah(2) and šir) [GIŠ3 archaic frequency: 16; concatenation of 2 sign variants; archaic frequency: 101; concatenates 2 sign variants].

gtilde2,3,4, gtilde2,3: (cf., gtildeešta).

haš: (cf., haz).

háš; haš4: lower abdomen; loins; back; thigh (numerous + foundation, base).

heš5: (cf., šagtildea).

huš: v., to be angry (compare guz, huz).

     adj., furious, terrible, awesome; wild (said of animals); fiery red (Akk. ruššû).

kaš, kás: beer; alcoholic beverage (ka, 'mouth', + áš, 'to desire') [KAŠ archaic frequency: 261; concatenates 4 sign variants].

kàš: urine (an etymology involving še10, 'excrement', would have to be forced so much, that the homophone kaš, 'beer', with its similar appearance, probably replaced the use of a, 'water', to mean 'urine' at some point).

kaš4, kas4: n., speed; runner, courier, messenger; nonresident, noncitizen, tourist (place(s) + locative + many) [KAS4 archaic frequency: 1].

     v., to run fast; to gallop; to travel fast.

     adj., quick; fluent.

kéš: (cf., kešda).

kiš, keš: totality, entire political world (name of the powerful city in the north of Sumer that first bound together and defended the cities of Sumer) (places + many) [? KIŠ archaic frequency: 46].

(gtildeiš)kiša(2), kiši16/17: (cf., kišik(2)).

kiši4: half; forelock (sign of a freeman; contrast gàr, kàr) (ki, 'place', + šè, 'portion').

kiši7,8,9: (cf., kišib7,8,9).

kuš, kus[SU]: skin, hide, leather (ku5, 'to cut', + ús, 'to be joined, next to'/šè, terminative suffix/šú, 'to cover').

kúš: to be tired; to be out of breath; to worry; to calm (kúš-(ù) in marû) (aka, 'to do, act', + úš, 'dead').

kùš: ell/cubit = 1/2 meter = 30 fingers [šu-si] = distance from elbow to fingertips; forearm; channel (cf., šu-da) (ku, 'to base, found, build', + many).

kuš6: (cf., kuruš).

kuš7: devastation, destruction; groom, valet, esquire, body-servant, boy (ki, 'place', + úš, 'to kill').

kušu: (cf., kušumx).

kúšu: turtle (cf., ŠIM×KÚŠU, where 'whale' must be meant) (ku6, 'fish', + šú, 'to cover') [? UH3 archaic frequency: 14; concatenates 2 sign variants].

liš: morsel (happiness + small + šè, 'portion') [LIŠ archaic frequency: 4].

maš: one-half; twin (ma4, 'to leave, depart, go out', + šè, 'portion') [MAŠ archaic frequency: 133].

maš; máš: interest (of a loan); rent; profit; produce, yield (of a field) (ma4, 'to leave, depart, go out', + šè, 'portion') [MAŠ archaic frequency: 133].

máš; maš: kid; he-goat [MAŠ2 archaic frequency: 60].

máš: n., extispicy (divination based on the entrails of a sacrificed animal); sacrificial animal [MAŠ2 archaic frequency: 60].

     v., to scrutinize, inspect.

mèš: (cf., mes).

muš: n., snake; reptile (eme, 'tongue'/ma4, 'to leave, depart, go out', + úš, 'to kill'/11, 'venom, poison') [MUŠ archaic frequency: 3; BU: archaic frequency: 393; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

     adj., bitter.

muš2,3: n., face, appearance, aspect; diadem; a city's irrigated, cultivated territory; surface (mu10, 'female', + áš, 'to desire') [MUŠ3 archaic frequency: 284; concatenates 2 sign variants].

     v., to glisten, shine.

muš4: a biting insect (cf., the etymology of muš, 'snake').

muš5[ŠEŠ]: bitter (eme, 'tongue', + ú, 'plant', + eš, 'to anoint'; cf., šeš).

niš, neš: twenty (ní, 'self, body', + aš, 'one [finger, toe]').

peš: n., womb; palm frond; three [GIR archaic frequency: 28; concatenation of 4 sign variants] (moist container + ùš, 'placental membrane'; pa, 'leaf, branch', + eš, 'many, much'; 5,6,16,21, 'three').

     v., to expand; to be thick, wide.

     adj., precious, valuable.

peš(7): child; son.

péš, píš: a type of edible mouse (probably derives from pèš, 'fig').

(gtildeiš)pèš: fig; fig tree (moist container + šè, 'portion').

peš4,13: n., river pebble.

     v., to be pregnant; to conceive.

peš5,6: n., deep breathing; scent; spider; combed wool, fluff (cf., (5), 'spider').

     v., to breathe deeply; to make an incision; to pluck apart; to comb and clean wool.

piš10, peš10; pešx(KI.A): shore, river bank.

púš: pain; tightness; difficult circumstances (derives from peš4, 'to be pregnant').

suš: to sit down; to reside (su, 'body, relatives', + uš8, 'foundation place, base'; cf., tuš).

suš2,3: to rub, anoint (with oil) (su, 'body', + eš, 'to anoint').

šeš, šes: brother; brethren; colleague [URI3=ZATU-595 archaic frequency: 77; concatenates 2 sign variants].

šeš, ses: n., myrrh (reduplicated eš, 'to anoint').

     v., to taste bitter.

     adj., bitter, brackish.

šeš(2,4): to anoint; to rub; to erase; to be dense (reduplication class) (reduplicated eš, 'to anoint') [ERIN=ŠEŠ4 archaic frequency: 105].

šeš2,3,4: to weep, cry; to mourn; to wail (reduplication class) (to become moist ?).

šuš(2), šu2,4: to overthrow; to throw down; to go down; to set, become dark, be overcast (said of the sun); to cover (with -da-) (reduplication class) (reduplicated šu, 'hand'; cf., šub) [ŠUŠ2 archaic frequency: 243].

šuš4: to fell trees; to chop away (reduplicated šu, 'hand').

šuš5,6, šu5,6: bedding, litter, feed, fodder (scattered for animals) (reduplicated uš, 'to stand upon').

téš[UR]: n., sexuality, sex; shame, modesty; all kinds, all sorts; each of them (te, 'to approach', + áš, 'to desire'; cf., ašte).

     v., to feel ashamed.

     adv., together (often with suffix -bi, -ba or -e).

tuš: n., home (te, 'to approach', + uš8, 'foundation place, base').

     v. sing., to (cause to) dwell, reside; to be at home; to settle; to set up, establish; to sit; to lie down (singular; cf. plural, duruna).

nita: (cf., nitah).

šita, èšda: clean; bathed; a priest (eš, 'to anoint', + ta, dá, 'by means of'/dé, 'to pour, water') [ŠITA archaic frequency: 373; concatenates 7 sign variants].

(gtildeiš)šíta, ešda: mace (úš, 'to kill', + ta, dá, 'by means of') [EŠDA archaic frequency: 26].

šìta: channel, small canal (šè, 'portion' + ída, íd, i7, 'main canal') [ŠITA3 archaic frequency: 139; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

šita(4), èšda; šid3,4,5: n., band; bond, tie (šè, 'portion', + te, 'to approach'; cf., ašte, téš).

     v., to bind; to be together; to join, link with; to couple.

     adj., bound, intact.

šita5, šit, šid, šed: n., measure; number (šè, 'portion', + ta, dá, 'nature, character').

     v., to count; to consider; to calculate, figure out; to memorize; to recite; to read aloud.

šita6: a type of vessel.

biz; bi(z): n., tears (Akk. loanword from bi,s,su, 'flow of tears' and ba,saa,su, 'to (let) drip', cf., Orel & Stolbova #256 *baz- 'flow, be wet').

     v., to drip, trickle; to cry; to ooze; to pour; to rinse off; to impute, accuse; to push someone away; to dry (cf., bi-bi-zé).

gaz(2): n., powder; break, fracture; war (chamber + repetitive motion; cf., (gtildeiš)nagtildea3,4, nagtildeX[GAZ, KUM]).

     v., to crush; to kill, slaughter (with -da-); to vanquish, defeat.

gazi: a spice - cassia, used on meat ('let it breathe'; Akk. kasû II) [GAZI archaic frequency: 14].

guz, huz[LUM] v., to gnash the teeth; to bare the teeth; to rage at; to cut, trim, clip; to castrate (reduplication class: hu-hu-uz) (gù, 'noise', + zú, 'teeth').

     adj., long, shaggy (hair).

haz, haš: to break or cut off (twigs, branches); to thresh grain (há, 'numerous', + zé, 'to cut, pluck').

nuz, nus: egg (na4,'pebble', + uz/us,'goose', cf. also, nunuz).

meze: a type of drum (function + repetitive noise).

ziz: moth (Akk. loanword from saasu, 'moth' and ašaašu, 'moth', cf., Orel & Stolbova #1034 *'açuç- 'insect').

zíz[ÁŠ]: emmer (wheat) (reduplicated or zi).

zìz: a crop-devouring insect (see etymology for ziz).

Copyright © 1996-1999 John Alan Halloran, Los Angeles, California. All Rights Reserved.
Last modified on August 9, 1999.