la-ag: (cf., lag).

la-ga: (cf., lú-la-ga).

la-gal: (cf., lagar).

la-ha-ma: long-haired hero(s) ?; mythological sea monster ?.

la-la: joy; appeal, charms; abundance; vigor (reduplicated 'happiness').

lá-ìa[NI]: remainder of debt left over, difference, arrears ('to weigh; minus' + 'oil'; may be a connection to ia4, 'counter'; cf., lalla).

lagab na4za-gìn-na: a block of lapis lazuli ('block' + 'lapis lazuli' + genitive).

làl-har: mythological lake, pond ('honey; date syrup' + 'ring').

li-gi4-in: exercise tablet (loan from Akkadian liginnu).

li-um, le-um: plate.

iti dLi9-si4: calendar month 9 at Umma during Ur III.

lu-ga: (cf., lug).

lu-gú: to twist; be crooked, not straight ('numerous' + 'edge'; cf., ru-gú).

lu-hu-um: mud (luh,'to wash' + imi, 'clay, mud'; don't find Semitic parallels to Akk. luhummû, but Hebrew/Arabic LH/LHH means 'moist'; cf., lum, 'fertilizer, manure').

lu-lim: stag (Akkadian loanword ?; 'to graze, pasture' + 'thousand').

lu-úbsar: turnip, beet ('abundant' + 'container').

kušlu-úb: leather bag for holding food; lunch bag ('abundant' + 'container').

kušlu-úb-šir(-ra)...aka: to prepare (gold or silver) for the precious sack (by sifting) ('leather bag' + 'testicles' + locative case ending + 'to do').

lú-a-tu5(-a): a priest who bathes the statues of the deities and rulers - lustration priest ('man' + 'water' + 'to wash, bathe' + nominative).

lú-á-tuku: strong man, influential person ('man' + 'strength' + 'to have').

lú-(gtildeiš)bala: man of the spindle ('man' + 'spindle').

lú-bappir(2/3): brewer (cf., ningi; lunga) ('man' + 'beer bread').

lú-bar-ra: foreigner ('person' + 'outside' + genitive).

lú-búr-ru: interpreter (of omens/dreams) ('person' + 'to reveal, interpret (a dream)' + nominative with vowel harmony).

lú-dam-tuku: a married person ('person' + 'spouse' + 'to have').

lú-di-da: opposing party (in a legal case) ('man' + 'law suit' + 'with').

lú-du-du: vagabond ('man' + reduplicated 'to walk').

lú-é-nígtilde-ka: manager of the treasure-house ('man' + 'house' + 'treasure' + double genitive [a]k-a[k]).

lú-érim: enemy ('man' + 'evil, hostile').

lú-éše: prisoner ('man' + 'rope'; cf., é-éše, 'jail' and šagtildea, 'captive').

lú-ga-šum: assassin ('man' + 'I will' + 'to slaughter').

lú-gi-di(-da): piper ('man' + 'reed' + di-dé, 'to speak' + nominative).

lú-gi-gíd-da: flutist ('man' + 'reed' + 'long' + nominative).

lú-gu-la: despot ('man' + 'large').

lú-gub-ba: ecstatic ('man' + 'to stand' + nominative).

lú-gtildeiš-e3/11: doorkeeper, doorman ('man' + 'key').

lú-hun-gtildeá: hired worker ('man' + 'to hire' + nominative).

lú-im/tum9: 'wind man': unreliable person ('man' + 'wind').

lú-inim-ma: witness ('person' + 'word' + genitive).

lú-KA×LI-KA×LI: incantation priest (cf., tu6, mu7, zug4, 7, and sig14).

lú-kal-(l): dear one ('person' + 'precious').

lú-kar-ra: refugee ('person' + 'to escape' + nominative).

lú-kaš4: courier ('man' + 'fast runner').

lú-ki-inim-ma: witness ('person' + 'place' + 'oath' + genitive).

lú-kúr-ra: stranger; enemy ('man' + 'mountains, foreign country' + genitive).

lú-kurun(-/ak/): brewer; innkeeper ('man' + 'alcoholic drink' (+ genitive)).

lú-la-ga: robber (cf., ma-la-(g)).

lú-lul(-la): unfaithful, treacherous man ('man' + 'lies' + genitive).

lú-má-gur8: boat captain ('man' + 'large boat').

lú no man does X ('man' + prohibitive modal prefix + 'to be' + 'no, not'; cf.,

lú-nam-tag-ga: sinner ('man' + 'guilt' + genitive).

lú-ní-zu(-/ak/): thief ('man' + 'one's own' + 'your' + genitive).

lú-ní-zuh: thief ('man' + 'one's own' + 'to steal, rob').

lú-nígtilde-nu-tuku: poor man, debtor ('man' + 'thing' + 'not' + 'to have').

lú-nígtilde-tuku: rich man, wealthy person ('man' + 'thing' + 'to have').

lú-ru-gú: recalcitrant, intractable individual(s) ('man' + ru-gú, 'to withstand, oppose').

lú-ru-gú-da: river ordeal, to decide an insoluble legal case, which involved swimming a certain distance and returning to shore without being pulled under by the current ('man' + 'to send' + 'river bank' + 'to be near'; cf., ru-gú).

lú-silim: perfect man ('man' + 'good, healthy').

lú-su-a: friend, acquaintance ('man' + su-a, 'cat').

lú-šár: numerous individuals, myriads ('men, people' + 'to be many').

LÚ.ŠE: (cf., níga).

lú še bad-rá: to thresh ('man' + 'grain' + 'to open, expose, peel, release, split' + nominative).

lú-šuku-ra-ke4-ne: persons with allotted portions ('allotted portions' + genitive + plural).

lú-tu-ra: a sick person ('person' + 'to be weak, sick' + nominative).

lú-u5-a: rider ('man' + 'to mount, ride' + nominative).

lú-u18[gtildcapIŠGAL]-(lu): mankind; human being ('humans' + 'huge' [ + 'numerous']).

lú-u18-um: name of a breed of small cattle (possible Semitic loanword).

lú-zàh: runaway, fugitive ('man' + 'to flee').

lú-zi(-d): righteous, good man ('man' + 'faithful, true').

lú-zu(-a): acquaintance ('person' + 'to know' + nominative).

lú-zuh: thief ('man' + 'to steal, rob').

lugal-šà-lá-sù: merciful king ('king' + 'merciful').

lul...dug4: to tell a lie ('lie' + 'to speak'). to keep silent ('lie' + 'to stay silent').

lum-ma: a fecund female ('to be fertile, productive' + nominative).

ma-al: Emesal dialect for gtildeál.

(gi)ma-an-sim: sieve ('it sifts for me').

ma-az: exuberant, joyful; a female dancer.

ma-da: district, realm (Akkadian, maatu(m) I, 'land').

ma-la-(g): friend (among females) ('to bind' + LA.GA, 'an obscene name for the female genitalia' per Landsberger).

ma-mu(2)-(d): dream ('it is growing for me').

ma-na: a unit of weight measure, mina = ca. 500 grams = 60 gín (since Akkad period, 2 ma-na = 1 sìla of water) (Akk., manûm, 'to count').

ma-na-tur: a surface area measure, little mina = 1/3 shekel = 60 surface še = 720 square fingers; as a volume measure, = 60 še.

(gtildeiš)ma-nu: dwarf ash (?), cornel (?); firewood bundle ('to bind' + nu11, 'fire').

ma-ra-az: (variant of ma-az).

(gi)ma-sá(-ab): a basket ('to bind' + 'to equal in value' (+ 'container') ?; Semitic root means 'circle').

(gtildeiš)má-addir: ferryboat ('boat' + 'ferry; bridge').

(gi)má-da-lá: a thick bundle of reeds used to build rafts ('boat' + 'to hold near' + 'to strap, bind').

(gtildeiš)má-diri-ga: the boat sailing downstream ('boat' + 'to float (with the current)' + nominative).

má-DU-DU(-d): barge captain ('boat' + ?; cf., má-lah4/5).

(gtildeiš)má...du8: to caulk a boat ('boat' + 'to spread with pitch').

(gtildeiš)má-egir-ra: the stern of a boat ('boat' + 'back' + nominative).

má-gan-an-naki: Magan (a country on the sea route to India) ('boats' + 'support' + 'to be high' + nominative).

(gtildeiš)má-gi(4)-lum: a type of small sailing boat ('boat' + gilim, 'reed bundle').

(gtildeiš)má...gíd: to sail (with -da-); to tow a barge ('boat' + 'to draw, pull').

(gtildeiš)má-gur8: a large boat, cargo boat; pot stand ('boat' + 'high, deep') [MAGUR archaic frequency: 5; concatenates 2 sign variants].

má(-a)...gtildear: to load a boat ('boat' + 'in' + 'to place').

má-gtildeéš-gur: a boat of sixty-gur capacity ('boat' + 'sixty' + kor basket measure).

(gtildeiš)má-lá: cargo boat ('boat' + 'to extend, load').

má-lah4/5: sailor; barge captain ('boat' + 'to drive along').

má-nisagtilde-gtildeá: boat with first-fruit offerings ('boat' + 'first-fruits' + nominative).

(gtildeiš)má-ru-ru-gú: the boat sailing upstream ('boat' + 'to move in a direction opposite to [the current]').

(gtildeiš)má-sagtilde-gtildeá: the bow of a boat; prow ('boat' + 'point, head' + nominative).

má(-a)-si-ga: describes products used to fill a boat ('boat' + 'in' + 'to fill' + nominative).

(gtildeiš)má (cf., (gtildeiš)má...du8).

(gtildeiš)má-su(-a): sunken boat ('boat' + 'submersed' + nominative).

(gtildeiš)má-sù-a: a deep-draught boat ('boat' + 'empty' + nominative).

(gtildeiš)má-še(-/ak/): grain boat ('boat' + 'grain' + genitive).

má-tùn[GÍN]: asphalt specialist ('boat' + 'to bind, bandage').

má(-a)...u5: to go on board; to embark ('boat' + 'to mount').

mà-ùr: ravine, gorge ('to go' ? + 'mountain pass').

mah-bi: adv., powerfully ('great' + adverbial force suffix).

(gtildeiš)mar-da ri-a: riding with the wagon ('wagon' + comitative + 'to be located' + nominative).

(gtildeiš)mar-gíd-da: wagon ('wagon' + 'to draw, pull, tow' + nominative).

mar-ru10[TU/GUR8]: flood (cf., mar-uru5).

mar-sa: boat transport center ('to lock up' + 'to compensate').

MAR-TU[-KI], gtildear7-dú: nomad; Amorite - Semitic nomad of the western desert ('wagon' + 'to be born').

(tu15)mar-uru5[TU/GUR8]: floodstorm (cf., é-mar-uru5) ('to immerse' + 'high, deep').

maš-dà: gazelle (cf., mašda).

itimaš-dù-gu7: calendar month 1 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 2 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 2 at Ur during Ur III.

maš-gána: settlement (Akk. loanword from maškanum, 'location, site', cf., šakaanum 'to place') (ZATU-356 archaic frequency: 4).

maš-gtildei6: (cf., máš-gtildei6).

maš-ki: agricultural income, yield ('profit, produce, yield' + 'earth').

maš-maš(-gal): a type of priest - (great) exorcist (reduplicated 'goat kid; one-half; loan interest, profit').

maš-šu-gíd-gíd: (cf., šu-maš-gíd-gíd).

maš-tab-ba: young twins ('twin' + 'to be double' + nominative).

máš-anše: animals, livestock ('goats' + 'equids').

máš-da-ri-a; maš-da-rá-a: offering ('goat kid' + 'driven [animal]').

máš-gtildei6, maš-gtildei6: night-time vision, dream; omen ('goat/extispicy' + 'black/night').

máš-lulim: hind (female of the red deer) (smaller goat-like animal + 'stag, hart').

máš-niga: grain-fed kid (smaller goat-like animal + 'fattened').

máš...šub: describes an animal dropping or birthing its young ('goat' + 'to drop').

máš-ùz-da(-k): breeding he-goat ('he-goat' + 'she-goat' + genitive).

me-a; mí-a: where ?; how ? ('to be' + locative). how numerous are...? ('how ?' + 'numerous').

me-a...túm: to prepare something for the sake of one of the civilized functions ('me' + locative + 'to be suitable; to prepare').

me-àm: where is ? ('to be' + locative + enclitic copula).

(gtildeiš)me-dím: ship's railing (?) ('function' + 'to build').

me-du10-du10-ga: the good 'me's, the beneficial functions. ('civilization's functions' + reduplicated 'sweet, good' + nominative).

me-en: I am; I; also a writing for me, 'function' ('to be' + '1st & 2nd person ending').

me-en-dè(-en): we; us ('to be' + '1st person plural ending').

me-en-zè(-en): you (plural) ('to be' + '2nd person plural ending').

-me-eš: used as plural suffix, especially in late Sumerian and Akkadian context texts.

me-gal: great office ('function' + 'great').

me-te...gtildeál: to be fitting ('fitting thing' + 'to be').

me...gtildear: to make silent ('divine decree' + 'to set').

me-huš: terrible 'me's, negative attributes ('functions' + 'terrible, angry').

me-kìlib-ba: all the 'me's, all the functions of civilized life.

me-lám/li9(-m), me-lim5[LAM]: terrifying glance; splendor, radiance; halo, aura, light (myth.) ('divine power' + 'awe-inspiring quality; to shine').

me-lám...sù-sù: to deck with splendor ('splendor' + 'to strew, furnish, provide').

me-li-e-a: 'woe is me'.

me-luh-haki: a country - probably the Indus valley civilization in Pakistan.

me-mah: the high 'me's, the high functions ('function' + 'high, exalted').

me-na-àm: when? ('to be' + èn, 'time; until' + enclitic copula).

me-na-šè: how long? ('to be' + èn, 'time; until' + terminative).

me-nam-nun-na: the (god-given) 'me' of royalty ('function' + 'rulership' + genitive).

me-ni-da: along with himself ('to be' + 'self' + 'with').

me-nì-galam: perfected 'me's ('functions' + 'thing' + 'artistic, complicated').

me-re: Emesal dialect for gtildeìri.

me-šár-ra; me-ša-ra: all the 'me's ('functions' + 'totality; to be numerous' + nominative).

me-šè: where to?, to where ? ('to be' + terminative).

me-te: fitting thing; suitability; unique; ornament; proper dress ('function' + 'to meet').

me-te-bi-im: to suit, befit ('to be its fitting thing').

me-te-gtildeál-sagtilde-gtildei6-ga: adornment of the black-headed people, such as national totems, tatoos, costumes or other symbols of the Sumerians ('ornament' + 'to be' + 'the black-headed' + genitive).

me(-da)...tùm: how will X attain or succeed ('function' + comitative + 'to obtain').

mè-šen(-šen-na): battle; war ('battle' + 'copper implement').

men-an-uraš-a: crown of heaven and earth ('crown' + 'heaven' + 'earth' + genitive).

men-dalla: beaming crown ('crown' + 'beam, ray; to be bright').

men-ri-ba; men-rib-ba: supreme crown ('crown' + 'supreme').

men-sagtilde: head-crown ('crown' + 'head'; cf., sagtilde-men).

mi-ir: Emesal dialect for gtildeíri, 'scorpion'.

mi-rí: (cf., mer).

(gtildeiš)mi-rí-tum: a musical instrument (loanword).

(gtildeiš)MI(-si)-sahar(-ra)(ku6): sieve; moray eel (?) ('dark'(?) + 'ray-like; to fill' + 'sand, sediment' + genitive/locative).

(gtildeiš)mi-tum: a mace (Akkadian, miitum, 'dead man').

mí-a: (cf., me-a).

mí...dug4/du11/e: to praise; to handle gently, caress, rub; to take great care with (often with -ni-) ('female' + 'to speak, do').

MÍ-eden-na: she-ass of the steppe ('female' + 'steppe' + genitive).

MÍ-gir: heifer, young cow ('female' + 'young heifer').

MÍ-u5-a: selected for breeding ('female' + 'to mount' + nominative).

MÍ-u8: ewe lamb ('female' + 'ewe').

mí-ús-sá: bride ?; son-in-law ? ('woman' + 'to come near to' + 'to equal in value').

mí-ús-sá-tur: son-in-law ('woman' + 'to come near to' + 'to equal in value' + 'young, little').

itimin-èš: calendar month 7 at Umma during Ur III.

mu-X: year X (indicates a date according to a notable event that occurred during the year).

mu-...-a(k)-šè: because (in a nominalized sentence); for somebody's sake ('name' + genitive + terminative).

mu-dili-dili: individual entries (in a lexical series) ('entry, line on a tablet' + reduplicated 'single').

mu-dù-ù-bi: all year long ('year' + 'to work' + 'after' + 'it').

mu-dur7[BU](-ra): dirt; dirty (rags).

mu-gub: assigned lines ('word, sentence' + 'to set down').

mu hé-gtildeál-la: a year of abundance ('year' + 'overflow; abundance' + genitive).

mu-im-ma: last year ('year' + 'last, previous').

mu-lá: (cf., gal5-la).

mu-mu-a: among all names = among known persons (reduplicated 'name' + locative).

mu...pàd/pà: to invoke; to choose ('name' + 'to call, swear').

mu-lugal...pàd/pà: to swear by the king's name ('name' + king + 'to call, swear').

mu-ru(-b): (cf., murub4, múru).

mu(-šè)...sa4: to name; to give as name ('name' (+ terminative) + 'to name').

mu-sar-ra: (royal) inscription ('name, word' + 'to write' + nominative).

túgmu-sír-ra: mourning garment ('garment' + personal prefix + 'weak, feverish' + nominative).

mu-ša-lum: mirror (Akkadian loanword).

mu...šè: because ('name' + terminative).

itimu-šu-du7: calendar month 9 at Lagaš during Ur III.

mu-tuku: to be famous ('name' + 'to have').

mu-túm: delivery (personal prefix + 'to bring').

mu-ú-a: this year ('year' + ? + nominative).

mu-ud-na: spouse (mud, 'to give birth' + 'human being').

mu-ús-sa: the following year ('year' + 'to follow' + nominative).

mú-mú: always being reborn (such as the moon) (reduplicated 'to ignite; to sprout, appear').

mu6[PA]-sùb: shepherd (PA as mu6 only occurs in this compound + 'shepherd').

mud-gtildeál: begetter ('to give birth' + 'to be').

mug...dun: to sort out the tow (from the usable, longer fibers) ('tow' + 'to heap up').

mun-du: emmer groats; morning meal (time); an acceptable food offering for the dead (Akk. mundu).

mun-gazi: spices; an industrial process of reducing the volume of goods by pulverizing until 'like salt' ('salt' + 'cassia spice').

mur-gig: paralysis (?); lung cancer (?) ('lungs' + 'illness; to be sick, painful').

mur-gu4: fodder, forage, feed ('fodder' + 'domestic ox').

itimunu4-gu7: calendar month 5 at Lagaš during Ur III.

munus-kar-ke4: (cf., (munus)kar-kid).

murgu-ba: turtle carapace, shell - used as a mixing bowl or trough ('back' + 'turtle').

múrgu[LUM]-...-ta: after ('back' + ablative).

itimurub4: calendar month 4 at Umma during Ur III.

muš-da-gur4: gecko, lizard ('reptile'+ 'arms, sides' + 'plump, big').

múš...dub: comb or set hair ('appearance' + 'to heap up').

mùš...de6/túm: to stop working; to cease ('appearance' + 'to prepare').

mùš-me: face, features ('face, appearance' + 'to say, tell').

mušen-dù: fowler ('bird' + 'to mould').

na-ab-bé-a: thus does he/she speak (affirmative + itilde, conjugation prefix + b, inanimate pronominal prefix + e, 'to speak' in marû singular + e, 3rd person marû singular subject marker + nominal).

na-ágtilde-gi4-in: slavery ('human being' + 'to check, measure' + 'slave').

na...de5[RI]: to give advice, instructions; to cleanse; to fell trees (cf., na...ri(-g)) (prohibitive/affirmative + 'to advise').

na-DU: read na...de6 or na...ri6, 'advice, instructions'.

na-gada: herdsman (from Akkadian naaqidum, 'shepherd').

na-gtildeá-ah: fool ('human being' + 'to deliver' + 'spittle' ?).

na-izi: incense ('incense' + 'fire').

na-kab-tum: a cattle pen (Akk. loanword, indicating a place for cattle to be inseminated).

na-nam: indeed.

na(-šè)...ri(-g): to inspect; to counsel in a friendly way (cf., na...de5) (prohibitive/affirmative + 'to pick').

na-RI: instructions (cf., na-DU).

na(4)-rú-a: stele, dedicatory stone ('stone' + 'to erect, plant' + nominative).

(gtildeiš)ná-gi4-rin-na: divine bed ('bed' + 'fruit, flowers' + genitive).

na4-šag4-túg: stone weight for cloak ('pebble, weight' + 'inside' + 'cloth garment').

na4-šu-mìn: anvil ('weight' + 'hand, strength' + 'partner, equal').

nagtilde-énsi-ka: city ruler beverage ('drink' + 'city ruler' + genitive).

nagtilde-ku5: reservoir created by erecting embankments off to the side of a canal to which to divert some of the flood water within the canal ('drink' + 'to cut').

nagtilde-TAR: drinking water reservoir ('drink' + 'to separate').

nagtildea...dúb: to wash with soap ('soap' + 'to flop about, strike').

nagtildea-gaz: crushed soda (plant ?) ('soda, alkali' + 'to crush, powder').

nagtildea-kum: crushed soda (plant ?) ('soda, alkali' + 'to crush, bruise').

nagtildea-si-è: sprouted alkaline plant ('soapwort' + 'antennae' + 'to go forth'). to rub with soap ('soap' + 'to suck [away with]').

nam-a-zu: medical arts (abstract prefix + 'physician').

nam-á-gtildeál: strength (abstract prefix + 'arm, strength' + 'to be available').

nam-ab-ba: the older generation, elders (abstract prefix + 'father, elder').

nam-ama: motherhood (abstract prefix + 'mother').

nam-bára: monarchy (abstract prefix + 'throne dais; ruler').

nam-dam: marital status (abstract prefix + 'spouse').

nam-dam-gàr: trade (abstract prefix + 'merchant').

nam-digtildeir: divinities (abstract prefix + 'deity').

nam-dùg/du10: something favorable (abstract prefix + 'sweet').

nam-dugud: heaviness; importance (abstract prefix + 'heavy').

nam-dumu: childhood, youth (abstract prefix + 'child').

nam-en: lordship; office of lord, high priest (abstract prefix + 'lord').

nam-en-zi-da: true 'en'-ship ('lordship' + 'legitimate; true' + nominative).

nam-érim; nam-érin: solemn oath; curse (abstract prefix + 'enemy, destruction').

nam-galam(-ma): majesty, perfection (abstract prefix + 'artistic, complicated' + nominative).

nam-gi4-me-a-aš: collegiality, fellowship (abstract prefix + 'to return, come back' + 'office, function' + locative + plural suffix) (cf., gi4-me-a-aš).

nam-gur4: pride; feeling of importance (abstract prefix + 'to feel big').

nam-guruš: youthful vigor (abstract prefix + 'young man, worker').

nam-hé: abundance (abstract prefix + 'abundant').

nam-hul: pain, discomfort (abstract prefix + 'to harm').

nam-išib: purification.

nam-kalag: strength (abstract prefix + 'strong').

nam...kar: to take away one's destiny ('destiny' + 'to take away').

nam-ki-ágtildea: love (abstract prefix + 'to love').

nam-kiri4-šu-dù-a: supplication(s) (abstract prefix + 'supplication(s)').

nam-kù-zu: wisdom, expertise, cleverness (abstract prefix + 'expert').

nam...kud/ku5: to curse (often with -ta-); to decide ('destiny' + 'to cut').

nam-ku-li: friendship (abstract prefix + 'friend').

nam-érim(-bi)...kud: to swear, confirm by oath ('destiny' + 'hostile' ( + adverbial force suffix) + 'to cut').

PN nam-kúr-re: 'may PN not change it' (na, prohibitive prefix + nasal itilde, 'impersonal conjugation prefix', + -ib-, 'it', + 'to change' in marû form).

nam-lú-inim-ma: the act of witnessing (abstract prefix + 'witness').

nam-lú-u18/lu7, nam-lú-ùlu: people, mankind, humanity (abstract prefix + 'human being' + 'huge').

nam-lú-ùlu...aka: to treat with human dignity ('humanity' + 'to do').

nam-lugal: kingship (abstract prefix + 'king').

nam-luh: purification (abstract prefix + 'to clean').

nam-lul: treachery (abstract prefix + 'to lie, deceive').

nam-mah: greatness (abstract prefix + 'high, exalted, great').

nam-mah...dug4/du11/e: to exalt ('greatness' + 'to effect').

nam-me: may he/she/it not be (na, prohibitive + itilde, conjugation prefix + 'to be').

nam(-ga)-me-a/àm: should there not be (na, prohibitive + { itilde, conjugation prefix + ga, conjugation prefix 'and then' + me, 'to be' } + (-a)-m, 3rd. sing. enclitic copula).

nam-mu: why does it concern me? (a-na-àm, 'why' + 'my, mine').

nam-mul: sparkling (abstract prefix + 'stars').

nam-nin: rulership; position of supreme power (abstract prefix + 'queen').

nam-nar: concert, harmony (abstract prefix + 'musician').

nam-nir-gtildeál: distinction, reputation; superiority (abstract prefix + 'noble, authority').

nam-nu-tar: ill-fated ('destiny' + 'not' + 'cut').

nam-nun: deep, profound (abstract prefix + 'great, fine, deep').

nam-ra-ag: prisoner of war, used for work; captivity (abstract prefix + 'to impress with a seal').

nam-RI-HU: bird breeder (?) (abstract prefix + 'to tend' + 'bird').

nam-sa6-ga: pleasure (abstract prefix + 'to please, satisfy').

nam-sagtilde-gtildeá...aka: to treat with respect (abstract prefix + 'first-class' + nominative + 'to do').

nam-sipa...aka: to practice shepherdship (abstract prefix + 'shepherd' + 'to do').

nam-sun5: humility (abstract prefix + 'modesty').

nam-sun7: quarreling, bickering (abstract prefix + 'quarrel').

nam-šeš(-a): bitterness (abstract prefix + 'to taste bitter').

nam-šilig: violence (abstract prefix + 'powerful; axe').

nam-šilig...aka: to use violence ('violence' + 'to do').

nam-šilig...gum/gú-gtildeá-àm: it is disastrous (?) ('violence' + 'mortar/back of neck' + 'to place' + 'it is').

nam-šita: prayer, supplication (abstract prefix + 'clean, bathed').

nam-šub: incantation, spell (abstract prefix + 'to cast').

nam-tag: responsibility, guilt (abstract prefix + 'to handle').

nam-tar: fate, destiny (abstract prefix + 'to determine, decide').

nam...tar: to decree the fate (most often with -ni-, or -ri-, 2. sg.; with -da- indicates that several parties are deciding the fate); to make a firm promise ('destiny' + 'to determine').

nam-tar-egtildeir-ra(-/ak/): the future order ('fate' + 'future' + genitive).

nam-ti, nam-til-la: life (abstract prefix + 'to live').

nam-ugula[PA]: foremanship (abstract prefix + 'foreman').

nam-ur5-ra: after that, as a result ('destiny' + 'it' + genitive).

nam-ùkur/úku(-r): poverty (abstract prefix + 'to be poor').

nam-umun-na: sovereignty (abstract prefix + 'title of respect' + nominative).

nam-úš: death (abstract prefix + 'to die').

NÁM-di: swindle (?) ('planning ability' + 'legal case').

ne...gub: to position oneself ('precise' + 'to stand'; cf., ní...gub).

ne-ha: rest, repose (from Akkadian neehtum, 'peace, security').

ne-mur: glowing coals, fire.

itiNE-izi-gtildear: calendar month 5 at Nippur during Ur III.

NE-ra: (cf., bí-ra).

ne-sagtilde: (cf., nisagtilde). to kiss ('an instance' + sub, 'to suck').

ne-šè: on whose behalf ?; concerning someone ('this one' + terminative suffix).

NI-dub: (cf., ì-dub).

ni-gi-da: unit of sixty, thing of sixty = ba-rí-ga (gtilde-gtildeešta).

ni-gi4-íb: a resin ('this one' + 'to restore' + 'loins').

ni-ik-tum: a resin (loanword ?).

ni-is-ku: choice; a class of persons or animals; fine steed (from Akkadian nisqum).

NI-KUŠ-NÍgtildcapIN: a vessel.

ní-a: by itself ('self' + adverbial suffix).

ní-ba: by itself ('self' + bi, 'its' + a, nominative ?).

ní-bi(-a): (by) itself ('self' + adverbial force suffix).

ní-bulugtilde5[DÚB]; ní-balagtilde: pompous ('self' + 'to grow big').

ní...dar: to be fearful ('fear' + 'to slice, shatter').

ní-digtildeir(-/ak/): the fear of god ('fear' + 'god' + genitive).

ní[IM]...dirig: to sail ('self' + 'to float over'; reading from Alster, Sumerian Proverbs).

ní...dúb: to relax ('self' + 'to knock down').

ní-gal: great fear, awe ('fear, awe' + 'great').

ní-gtildeál: terrifying ('fear' + 'to place').

ní...gíd: to stretch out ('self' + 'to reach out, lengthen').

ní...gub: to position oneself ('self' + 'to stand'; cf., ne...gub).

ní-gùr-(r); ní-guru6: imposing, awesome ('fear, awe' + 'bearing').

ní-gtildeu10, ní-mu: myself ('self' + 'my').

ní...íla: to inspire awe; to raise oneself ('fear, awe; self' + 'to raise').

ní(-zu)...lá: to diminish or humiliate (your)self ('self' + 'your' + 'to diminish').

ní...ri: to be afraid of something, to inspire fear (with -da-) ('fear' + 'to strike').

ní-su-ub: coward ('fear' + 'to suck; to pray, prostrate oneself').

ní šu-a...gi4: to submit oneself to someone's protection ('self' + 'hand, strength' + locative + 'to return to').

ní...te/ti(-gtildee26): to be scared; to fear, respect (with -da-) ('fear' + 'to attack').

ní...te(-en): to rest; to calm down; to cool ('fear; body' + ten, 'to extinguish, allay, cool down').

ní-te(-n): alone; personally ('fear' + 'to be frightened').

ní...tuku: to experience awe or fear; awesome ('fear' + 'to get, have').

ní-zu: yourself ('self' + 'your').

ní-zu/zuh: (cf., lú-ní-zu, lú-ní-zuh).

nì: (cf., gtilde).

túggtilde-XXX: (cf., túg-nígtilde-XXX).

gtilde-a-ru: a consecrated gift ('thing' + 'to give as a votive gift').

gtilde-á-gtildear: violence ('thing' + 'arm, strength' + 'to set').

gtilde-á-sì-ga: well-established (?) ('thing' + 'strength' + 'to set in place' + nominative).

gtildegtildea: a temple servant ('things' + 'to measure, check').

gtilde-ak-ak: deed; activity ('thing' + reduplicated 'to do').

gtilde-ba: gift, present ('thing' + 'to give').

gtilde-bal-bal: trading of merchandise ('things' + 'to revolve, transfer, deliver').

gtilde-bàn-da: a measuring vessel ('thing' + 'junior').

gtilde-bún-na(ku6): turtle ('thing' + 'blister; to be swollen').

gtilde-dab5: something held or for which responsibility is assumed; wages ('thing' + 'to hold, hire, receive').

gtilde-dab5[-ba]-ke4-ne: warehouse keepers ('thing' + 'to hold, receive').

gtilde-dagtildeal: teeming; wide ('things' + 'copious').

gtilde-dím-dím-ma: created creatures ('things' + 'to fashion, create' + nominative).

gtilde-diri: supplement ('thing' + 'addition').

gtildcap-DU: a length measure.

gtilde-dù-a: a measure for fruit ('thing' + 'to erect on the ground' + nominative).

gtilde-du7: what is suitable, prescribed, or as it should be ('thing' + 'suitable').

gtilde...dug4: to say something ('thing' + 'to speak').

gtilde-á-zi...dug4: to speak unjustly ('thing' + 'violence' + 'to speak').

gtilde-DUN: submission ('thing' + 'subordinate).

gtilde-en-na: 'gentlemen's possession' ('thing' + 'lord' + genitive).

gtilde-érim: evil; wickedness; dishonesty; injustice ('thing' + 'hostile').

gigtilde-esir-ra: washbowl (made of bitumen-coated reeds) ('thing' + 'bitumen' + genitive).

gtilde-GA: (cf., gtilde-gur11).

gtilde ga-ti: I promise it ('thing' + 1st person cohortative modal prefix + 'to keep alive').

gtilde gal-gal: things of all sort ('thing' + reduplicated 'big').

gtilde-gi-na: justice; trustworthiness; truth ('thing' + 'true, reliable' + nominative).

gtilde-gig: evil; taboo, abomination ('thing' + 'illness').

gtilde-gilim: sieve; ruining, spoiling; mongoose ('thing' + 'to twist'; cf., dnin-kilim).

gtilde-gu7: food ('thing' + 'to eat').

gtilde-gu7-a: fattened; consumption; food consumed ('thing' + 'to eat' + nominative suffix).

gtilde-gu7-da: nourishment ('thing' + 'to eat' + contraction of marû participial and nominative suffixes).

gtilde-gu7-dè: something designated for consuming ('thing' + 'to eat' + marû participial suffix).

gtilde-gul: maul, used to break the clods left after harrowing ('thing' + 'to destroy').

gtilde-gur11[GA]: property; possession; property owner ('thing' + 'piled up').

gtilde-gtildeál(-la): sickle ('object' + 'to fill a storage basket' + nominative).

gtilde-gtildeiš-tag-ga: offering ('object' + 'to make a religious offering').

gtilde-hu-hu-nu: helplessness ('object' + 'helpless'). something never seen (by an eye) ('thing' + 'eye' + 'not' + 'to crack open' + nominative).

gtilde-íl(-l): support ('thing' + 'to raise up').

gtilde-im-ba: loss ('thing' + 'the paid out').

gtilde-ka-bi ba-ak: account settled ('account' + 'its' + conjugation prefix + 'to make').

gtilde-kal-la: precious ('thing' + 'to value, esteem' + nominative).

gtilde-kal-kal(-la): everything valuable ('things' + reduplicated 'to value, esteem' + nominative).

gtilde-kas7/ka9[ŠID]: account; accounting; result (of a mathematical operation or calculation) (from Akk. nikkassu, 'deduction', from nakaasu, 'to cut off').

gtilde-ka9-ak: balanced account ('account' + 'made').

gtilde-kas7; nígtilde-gaz: half-reed = 3 cubits (Akk. nikkas).

gtilde-ki: vermin; beasts ('things' + 'ground').

gtilde-ki-sè: funerary offerings (cf., ki-sì-ga) ('things' + 'ground' + 'to apply').

gtilde-kú: (cf., gtilde-gu7).

(gtildeiš)gtilde-ku5(-da): wedge to tighten a bound join ? on a plow ('thing' + 'to separate' + nominative).

gtilde-kúr: belligerence; breaking an agreement ('thing' + 'hostile'/'to change').

gtilde-lul-la: treachery ('thing' + 'to lie, deceive' + nominative).

gtilde-mah: a lot; too much ('thing' + 'to be large').

gtilde-me-gtildear: silence; acclaim; the 'perfect tribute' ('thing' + 'to make silent').

gtilde-mí-ús-sá: wedding gift ('thing' + 'woman' + 'to come near to' + 'to equal in value').

gtilde-na-me; nígtilde-nam: anything ('thing' + emphatic prefix + 'to be').

gtilde-nam-kù: property made of precious metal ('possessions' + abstract prefix + 'precious metal').

gtilde-nam-nu-kal: nothing is precious ('anything' + 'not' + 'valued').

gtilde-nam-tar-ra: nature ('thing' + 'fate').

gtilde-nu-dùg: unpleasant (things) ('things' + not + 'sweet, good').

gtilde-nu-mu-da-sá: nothing is comparable with it ('things' + 'not' + conjugation prefix + 'with' + 'to equal in value').

gtilde-nu-sa6-ga: unpleasant (things) ('things' + not + 'sweet, good').

gtilde...ra: to throw something; to beat (up) ('thing' + 'to strike').

gtilde-sa-ha(2): fruit remaining after the harvest; garden fruit; springtime fruit ('thing' + Akk. ,sahharu, 'something small'; cf., also Akk. muthummu).

(urudu)gtilde-sa-sa: roasting oven ('thing' + 'roasting').

gtilde-sá[DI]: goal ('thing' + 'to compare with; to compete').

gtilde-sa6-ga: pleasure, happiness ('thing' + 'sweet, good').

gtilde-sám: price ('thing' + 'to buy, sell').

gtilde-sám/sa10-ma(-šè): (for) purchase ('thing' + 'to buy, sell' + nominative [ + terminative suffix]).

gtilde-si-sá: equity, justice, fairness ('thing' + 'straight').

gtilde-sig-ga: weakness ('thing' + 'small, weak').

gtilde-sila11[ŠID]-gtildeá: dough.

gtilde-šà-bi: what is in it; contents ('things' + 'interior' + 'its').

gtilde-šà-gtildear-ra: famine ('thing' + 'hunger' + nominative).

gtilde-šà-te-na: soothing to one's heart or mood ('thing' + 'heart, mood' + 'to soothe' + nominative).

gtilde-ŠID: (cf., gtilde-kas7/ka9).

gtilde-šu-gtildeá: everything in my hands ('thing' + 'hands' + 'in my').

gtilde-šu-taka4-a: objects that will be given away ('object' + 'to send, abandon' + nominative).

gtilde-šu-ti-a: what(ever) one receives ('object' + 'to receive' + nominative).

gtilde...šub: to neglect something ('thing' + 'to let drop').

gtilde-túg: blanket (for an animal); pack-saddle ('thing' + 'cloth').

gtilde-tuku: rich, wealthy ('thing' + 'to have').

gtilde-tukum-ta(-/ak/): something coincidental ('thing' + 'if' + 'from' + genitive).

gtilde-tur: a small amount ('thing' + 'small').

gtilde-ú-rum: possession; acquisition ('thing' + 'personal, private').

gtilde-ú-zug4[KA×LI]: foul food ('thing' + 'plant, food' + 'to spit out ?').

gtilde-u4-da-rí(-/ak/): everlasting, persistent ('thing' + 'days' + 'long lasting' + genitive).

gtilde-u4-ì[ZAL]-li: something for the future ('thing' + 'days' + 'to pass' + participial marû e(d) with vowel harmony).

gtilde-ul: what is fit for the cult ('thing' + 'primordial').

gtilde-úr-limmu: four-legged creature, livestock ('thing' + 'legs' + 'four').

gtilde-ur5-sa6-sa6: sweetness; (sexual) happiness ('thing' + ur5...sa6, 'to feel comfortable').

gtilde-zi(-šà)-gtildeál: living creature ('thing' + 'alive').

gtilde-zú-gub: food ('thing' + 'teeth' + 'to set').

gtilde-zuh: something stolen ('thing' + 'to steal, rob').

gtilde-ZUM-DIM4: a temple servant.

nigtildeir-si: paranymph, a man who had to take care of the bride before the young couple was married ('a bride's male attendant' + 'upright, normal').

nim...gtildeír: to lighten; to flash ('upper country' + 'lightning flash').

nin-digtildeir: high priestess ('lady' + 'gods').

nin-EN: (cf., nin-uru16).

nin-išib: lustration priestess ('lady' + 'to purify').

dnin-kilim: mongoose ('divine proprietress' + 'herd of wild animals'; cf., gtilde-gilim).

dnin-nínnamušen: owl ('divine proprietress' + 'owl').

nin ur5 ì-sa6: lady, sweetheart ('lady' + 'to be/make comfortable, happy').

nin-uru16: mighty queen ('lady' + 'mighty').

ninda-àr-ra: pulpy dish (prepared) of green-malt ('bread' + 'to chew' + nominative).

ninda-ba: bread offering ('bread' + 'to give; to divide, apportion').

ninda-bar-si: a type of bread made with bar-si emmer wheat flour.

ninda-durunx[DÚR.DÚR]-na: long-lasting bread (?); bread to eat while sitting (?) ('bread' + 'to sit, dwell; to dry out' + nominative; opposed to ninda-gub-ba, 'snack-bread').

ninda-gu: a type of bread ('bread' + 'net' ?).

ninda-gu7: food ('bread; food' + 'to eat').

ninda-gtildeíri: a type of bread ('bread' + 'expedition, trip').

ninda-KA-gu7: a type of bread ('bread' + 'mouth' + 'to eat').

ninda-kum4[UD]-ma: a type of bread ('bread' + 'mortar-ground flour' + nominative).

ninda-pad-rá: morsels of bread ('bread' + 'bite, morsel').

ninda-sagtilde-gu7: the best bread for eating ('bread' + 'prime' + 'to eat').

ninda-síki[UD]: a type of bread.

ninda-SÌLA: a type of bread ('bread' + 'liter').

NIR-da: (cf., šer7-da).

nir-gtildeál: noble (one); authority, expert; authorities; reliance ('raised high' + 'to be').

nir...gtildeál: to have authority; to be reliable; to rely, trust in (with -da-) ('authority' + 'to be with').

nir-gtildeál-mè-a: respected in battle ('authority' + 'battle' + locative).

nir-gam-(m): vault ('raised high' + 'to curve').

nir-padku6: a fish ? ('frog' + 'bite, small repast').

NITAH-dun-gi: a type of jackass ('male' + 'yoke' ?).

nìta[MUNUS-UŠ]-dam: husband ('male' + 'spouse').

nu-a: to lack, be without ('not' + nominative).

nu-banda3,5: supervisor of works, overseer ('not' + 'young').

nu-dùg(-ga): unpleasant ('not' + 'sweet, good' + nominative).

nu-dug4-ga: not talking ('not' + 'to speak' + nominative).

nu-èš: knife bearer - a cultic functionary ('image, likeness' + 'shrine').

nu-gi-na: unjust; unfit ('not' + 'just; firm' + nominative).

nu-gig: temple prostitute, hierodule ('not' + 'sick, painful').

nu-gtildear-ra: thriftless; disorderly ('not' + 'to store' + nominative).

nu-(gtildeiš)kiri6(-k): gardener (pronominal prefix or dialectal lú --> nu ?).

nu-kù: no money, i.e., a worthless penny ('not' + 'silver, precious metal').

(gtildeiš)nu-kúš: door pivot ('not' + 'to be tired').

nu-kúš-ù: restlessness ('not' + 'to be tired').

nu-luh-ha(sar): a plant (asa foetida) the fetid gum resin of whose root was used as a medicine ('not' + 'to be clean, fresh' + nominative).

nu-ma-su: (cf., nu-mu-un-su).

nu-me-a: which is not.... ('not' + 'to be' + nominative).

nu-me-en-na-ta: you don't exist ('not' + me-en, 'to be', 2nd pers. sing. + a-ta, temporal clause suffix).

nu-mu-da-sá: (cf., gtilde-nu-mu-da-sá).

nu-mu-un-su, nu-ma-su: widow ('she has not replaced [her husband]').

nu-ra: not stamped with a seal ('not' + 'to stamp').

nu-sa6: not good ('not' + 'sweet, good').

nu-siki/síg: orphan ('not' + 'wool [garment/blanket?]').

(gtildeiš)nu-úr-ma: pomegranate (tree) (Akk. nurmû, lurmûm, luriinu; Orel & Stolbova #2122 *riman- 'fruit').

nu(-un/ub)-zu: to not know; to not recognize; to not notice ('not' ( + 'him, her'/'it') + 'to know').

nu-zu: ignorant ('not' + 'to know').

nu-zu-a: unknown ('not' + 'to know' + nominative).

num-sahar-ra: fly (insect) ('flying insect' + 'dust; rubbish' + genitive).

numun...è/i-i: to issue seed, bring forth offspring ('seed' + 'to send forth').

numun...gtildear: to sow ('seed' + 'to place, deposit').

(gtildeiš)numun-gtildear-GUL: a part of the seeder plow ('seed' + 'to place' + 'to obstruct').

NUMUN-gtildeisal: a tool ('seed' + 'rudder').

numun-sum-gaz: crushed onion seed ('seed' + 'onion' + 'crushed').

numun...til: to run out of seeds ('seeds' + 'to finish, put an end to').

NUN.ME(.PÙ): (cf., abgal(2)).

pa-ágtilde: nostrils ('wings' + 'to measure, check').

PA+DUG-um: an allowance, payment.

pa...è; pa-è...aka: to show; to make appear; to let shine; to make resplendent (often with -ni- or bi-) ('bud, sprout' + 'to send forth' + 'to make').

pa(4)-har: wages ('small canal' + 'coil of silver', cf, a-pa4).

pa-pah: cella, inner sanctum of a temple (cf., Orel & Stolbova #1926, *pah- "close, lock").

pa-rim4: (cf., parim).

pa-sa-lal-a: a bundle of brushwood ('branch' + 'bundle' + 'to lift, carry; to bind' + nominative).

pa-TAR: cut-off branches/twigs ('branch' + 'to cut off').

PA+USAN: a shepherd.

pà-da: an occupation ('to find; to declare' + nominative).

pa4[PAB]-a-da-ga: flowing irrigation ditch ('irrigation ditch' + 'flowing with water'). to dig ditches ('irrigation ditch' + 'to dig').

pap-hal(-la): n., leg, thigh; confinement, poverty; share (Akk. loan, cf., hal, ha-la).

     v., to walk.

     adj., walking about, movable.

itipa4-ú-e: calendar month 11 at Umma during Ur III.

pa4-úgur[SIG7]: ditch ('irrigation ditch' + 'field, garden' ?).

pa5-sig: small branch canal ('irrigation ditch, canal' + 'small').

pah-zil: an intestinal disease (?) ('legs; leprosy' + 'to divide; to peel').

pe-el(-lá): (cf., pil(2)).

pe-en-zé-er: a functionary; hearth tender (?); leather worker (??) ('bellows' + 'to cut'; cf., metaphor in dùg...zil).

peš-mur7: a palm tree product ('palm frond' + 'ridge').

peš-peš: very wide, spacious; physically handicapped (reduplicated 'womb; to expand; to be wide').

péš-(gtildeiš)gi: canebrake mouse or mole rat ('mouse' + 'reeds').

(gtildeiš)pèš-duru5: fresh figs ('figs' + 'fresh').

(gtildeiš)pèš-hád: dried figs ('figs' + 'dried').

(gtildeiš)PI-apin: a part of the seeder plow (barig, '36 liters in Old Sumerian period', + 'plow').

pi-il: (cf., pil(2)).

pi-lá: (cf., pil(2)).

pi-lu5-da: (cf., billuda).

PIRIgtildcap.TUR: (cf., nemurx).

pisan-dub: container for clay tablets (cf., gtildeadub; ša13-dub-ba) ('vessel' + 'clay tablet').

piš10...tag: to go aground (said of a boat) ('shore, river bank' + 'to touch, strike').

pu-úh-ru-um: assembly (Akk. puhru 'assembly', cf., unkin).

(gtildeiš)kiri6: irrigated orchard ('well, cistern' + 'orchard').

pú-lá: deep well ('well, cistern' + 'to be high; to hang, stretch, reach').

pú-nígtilde-gtildeìr(-/ak/): pitfall ('well, cistern' + 'thing' + 'path' + genitive).

ra-ah: to strike repetitively [with a hoe]; to shake ('to strike' + h, 'many, numerous').

ra(2)-gaba: rider; courier (Akkadian rakbu).

ra-ra: to flatten; to make wide (reduplicated 'to stamp').

ri-ba: enormous, supreme (Akkadian rabbu).

(gtildeiš)ri-gi4-bil-lú: a tool.

ri-ha-mun: (cf., im-ri-ha-mun).

RI-HU: bird breeder (?) ('to tend' + 'birds').

rib-ba: enormous, supreme (Akkadian rabbu).

ru-gú: to withstand; to oppose; to move in a direction opposite to; to face (cf., lú-ru-gú-da).

Copyright © 1996-1999 John Alan Halloran, Los Angeles, California. All Rights Reserved.
Last modified on August 11, 1999.