abgal(2): sage, wise man, wizard (abba, 'elder', + gal, 'great') [ABGAL archaic frequency: 31].

ablal(3): bird niche, nest (ab, 'niche, nook', + lal, 'to be high; to hang').

abrig: a purification priest (a, 'water', + barag, 'ruler; throne') [ABRIG archaic frequency: 9].

absin(3): (seeded) furrow (ab, 'niche', + sín, 'to sift').

abul[KÁ.GAL]: city gate (loanword from Semitic for 'door', Orel & Stolbova, Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary (1995), #287).

abzu: the 'sentient' sea - the sea personified as a god (aba/ab, 'sea' + zu, 'to know') [ABZU archaic frequency: 28].

adamen(2,3): argument; fight.

addir[A.PA.gtildcapISAL.PAD.DIRIG]: ferry; bridge (ída/íd, 'river', + dirig/dir, 'to go over').

addirx: wages.

agam: swamp (a, 'water', + gam, 'to decline, incline').

ágan, akan: (cf., akani).

agar(2,3), ugar: field; commons [AGAR2 archaic frequency: 16].

agargaraku6 [NUNtenû]: a fish.

agarin(2,3): father; mother; womb.

agarin4,5: beer-wort; crucible, vat.

agrun: inner sanctuary [ZATU-413 archaic frequency: 4].

agtildearx[IM×IM; IM.DUGUD]: heavy rain shower, cloudburst (a, 'water', + gtildear, 'to accumulate; to deposit').

agtilderig: steward, superintendent (ágtildea, 'to measure; to check', + rig7, 'to deed, grant').

ahhur(2,3), uhhur(2,3): (cf., imhur).

akani, akan: udder.

ákan, aka4[KÁ]: door-frame, lintel.

akar: leather armor.

akkil: lamentation, ritual wailing.

alad: a life force; a male protective spirit.

alagtilde, alan, alam, ál: image, statue; figure, appearance [ALAN archaic frequency: 51; concatenates 6 sign variants].

alal: pipe, conduit, gutter; pipe for making libation offerings to the deceased (a, 'water', + lal, 'lift, carry').

alam: (cf., alagtilde).

alan: (cf., alagtilde).

alim: wild ram; bison; aurochs; powerful [ALIM=ZATU-219 [GIR3] sign per P. Steinkeller, archaic frequency: 73; concatenation of 3 sign variants].

allalx, alla: net, seine; crab.

amagi(2,3), mabi(2,3): ice.

amar: calf; young animal (áma, 'wild cow mother', + re7, 'to accompany, plural') [AMAR archaic frequency: 297].

amaš: sheepfold, cattle-pen (é, 'house', + maš, 'goat').

ambar, abbar: marsh; reeds, canebrake (imi/im, 'clay, mud', + bar, 'to obtain').

anše: male donkey; onager; equid; pack animal (an,'sky; high', + šè, terminative postposition = 'up to' = 'to raise up, carry') [ANŠE archaic frequency: 48; concatenates 4 sign variants;? KIŠ archaic frequency: 46].

anzalub: reed pulp.

anzud(2), anzu(2)-(d)[dIM.MI/DUGUDmušen]: a mythical giant bird; vulture, eagle [ANZU2 archaic frequency: 1].

(gtildeiš)apin: n., seeder plow (a, 'seed', + bun, 'to blow') [APIN archaic frequency: 181; concatenates 3 sign variants].

     adj., describes a plow animal (also apin-šè).

arad(2), urdu(2), ir3,11: (male) slave; servant; subordinate (Akk. loanword from wardum, 'male slave, man-servant') [IR11 archaic frequency: 10].

arah4[É.UŠ.GÍD.DA]: storehouse.

arala, arali: the netherworld (hara/àra, 'to pulverize', + la, 'youthful freshness and beauty').

arhuš: n., womb; compassion, pity (úr, 'base; root', + háš, 'lower abdomen').

     v., to be sympathetic.

(gtildeiš)ásal, ásar: Euphrates poplar tree [ASAL2 archaic frequency: 16].

asil(3,4,5): (cf., asilal(3,4,5)).

asila: (cf., asilal).

asilal(3,4,5): joy, gladness.

ašag, aša5 [GANÁ]: field, plot (cf., a-šà-(g)).

ašgab: leather-dresser, currier (kuš, 'leather', + gúb, 'to cleanse').

(ú)aški: bulrush (Typha grass; cf, únúmun) (éš, 'rope', + kid(6), 'to weave a reed mat').

aškud: wedge (as a device to bar a door); ramp (?).

ašlag: (cf., azlag).

ašte: need; necessity; desirable or beloved object (áš, 'to desire', + te, 'to approach'; cf., téš).

azag: taboo.

azlag(2,3,4,5,6), ašlag: fuller, felt-worker; launderer (a, 'water', + zalag, 'to cleanse').

babbar(2): bright; white; the rising sun (reduplicated bar6, 'bright, white') [UD archaic frequency: 419].

báhar: potter [BAHAR2 archaic frequency: 50; concatenates 3 sign variants].

balagtilde: lyre (?); drum (?); funeral song [? BALAG archaic frequency: 20].

banda2,4,5: prop, support.

bànda(da): young; junior; vigorous; impetuous; fierce; proud.

(gtildeiš)banšur(2,3): table; container [? BANŠUR archaic frequency: 7; concatenates 5 sign variants].

bappir(2/3): beer bread (a sweet and possibly pungent bread made from barley dough - mixed with malt [munu4] to make mash [titab] for beer); brewer [BAPPIR archaic frequency: 28; concatenates 6 sign variants].

barag, bára, bár; bara5,6: throne dais; king, ruler; cult platform; stand, support; crate, box; sack; chamber, dwelling (container plus ra(g), 'to pack') [? BARA2 archaic frequency: 69; concatenates 2 sign variants; ? ZATU-764 archaic frequency 21].

bárag, bàra, bàr [DAG]: nest [BARA3 archaic frequency: 13].

bariga [PI or UL(in Old Sumerian period)]: a measure of capacity - 36 sìla in the Old Sumerian period and 60 sìla in the Old Akkadian and Neo-Sumerian periods. Equals 6 bán. (bán-rig-a, 'the bán from picking, gleaning').

barzil (AN.BAR): (meteoric) iron (bar6, 'to shine', + zil, 'to cut, peel').

bibad[UZ.TUR]mušen: duck.

billuda, biluda[PA.AN]: worship, cult, rite; ordinance.

(gtildeiš)bugin: basket; trough.

bugtildeigtildex, búgin: basket (for carrying food) (cf., bunigtilde).

bulug: shoot, sprout; barley malt; needle; awl; drill; seal pin; boundary post; border (bul, 'to sprout', + aka/ag, 'to do') [BULUG archaic frequency: 4].

bùlugtilde: n., pupil, novice; foster child [BULUG3 archaic frequency: 19].

     v., to grow; to grow big; to rear, make grow.

buluh: to worry; to be nervous, frightened; to hasten, hurry; fright.

bunigtildex, punigtildex, bunin: bitumen-coated reed container (for carrying liquids), vat, tub (bún/bugtildex, 'blister; to be swollen', + nígtilde, 'valuables').

buranun: Euphrates river (bu5, 'to rush around', + ra, 'to flood, overflow', + nun, 'great, noble').

buzur(2,4,5), puzur(2,4,5): safety, security; secret, mystery; a merchandise tax.

bùzur: hand, palm.

dabin [ZÌ.ŠE]: coarse (?) barley flour.

dadag [UD.UD]: v., to clean, clear (reduplicated dág, 'brilliant, clean').

     adj., brilliant; pure; sacred.

dagrim: fields, vicinity, precinct (cf., gtildearim) (dag, 'resting place', + rim4, 'to run fast'; cf., bar-rim4).

dagtildeal: n., width, breadth (da, 'side', + gal/gtildeal, 'big') [AMA archaic frequency: 241; concatenates 2 sign variants].

     v., to widen, enlarge; .

     adj., wide, broad; copious.

dakkan, daggan: harem, living quarters, chamber (dag, 'dwelling', + gan, 'to bear').

dalhamun: tornado; violent storm; duststorm; whirlpool; riot, revolt (dal, 'to fly', + ha-mun, 'mutually opposing or contrasting').

dalhamun4: confusion, disorder.

danna, dana: road-length measure, 'march' = 30 = 21600 cubits = ca. 6.7 miles/10.8 kilometers; double hour (twelfth part of a full day) = the time it takes to march a length of 1 danna (Akkadian etymology from 'place of strength or safety') [DANNA archaic frequency: 2].

didila: very small, young.

didli: assorted, various; separate, individual, single (reduplicated dili).

digtildeir, dingir: god, deity; determinative for divine beings (di, 'decision', + gtildear, 'to deliver').

dìlib: hair, locks (cf., dalla, 'beam, ray', dálla, 'needle', and dul; dal, 'to cover, clothe, hide').

dílim, dél: spoon (dal, 'to fly, remove', + eme, 'tongue').

dìlim[BUN]: funnel-shaped bowl containing seeds for the drill plow.

dilmunki: the island of Bahrain, noted for its sweet water springs [DILMUN archaic frequency: 35].

dimgul: mast (dim, 'to bond, tie', + gul, 'enormous').

dinig[KI.NE]: potash; salt; crucible, kiln, brazier; air vent (, 'ashes', + nagtildea, 'potash').

dirig, diri, dir [SI.A]: n., addition; excess; overdraft; trouble; amount by which credits of an account tablet exceed debits - appears in the credits section of the succeeding period's account tablet; intercalary month after either 11th month or 12th month (based as much on whether the winter crop will be ready for the harvest month as on the need to reconcile the lunar year with the solar year, which required an average of 7 intercalary months in 19 years) (cf., (gi)ušub).

     v., to go over; to float (with the current); to exceed, stand out; to be extra; to be darkened, eclipsed; to be erased; to be greater than, to surpass, to be supreme over (with dative/locative).

     adj., superior, outstanding; surplus; superfluous; additional.

(gtildeiš)dubšik[ÍL], dupsik: basket.

dubur(2): testicles (dub, 'to store; to pour', + ir(2), 'tears or any bodily secretion').

dugud: n., weight; cloud [DUGUD archaic frequency: 2].

     adj., massive; heavy; difficult, hard (du7, 'complete', + gud, 'bull').

IMdungu: cloud, cloudbank.

durah, dàra, dàr: mountain goat buck; ibex (dur, 'bond, tie', + áhi, 'arm') [DARA3 archaic frequency: 11; concatenation of 4 sign variants].

durun: (cf., duruna).

duruna, durun, dúru, dúr; durunx [DÚR.DÚR]: n., buttocks; anus; dwelling [DUR2 archaic frequency: 52].

     v. plural, to sit; to be seated; to break wind; to dry out; to occupy, dwell; to set down, place (objects) (plural, cf., singular tuš) (èd, 'to bring down (or up); to exit, drain' + úr, 'root, lap, thighs', + ùgtildea/un, 'people').

dúruna, dilina, dìlim: oven for baking and roasting.

ebir(2), epir(2): small pot; beer mug.

ebla: a watery type of beer - 'light beer' (íb, 'waist', + lal/lá, 'to lessen').

edakua(2): fish bones (adda, 'skeleton', + ku6/kua, 'fish').

edimx, edin: earthenware vat for oil and fats.

edin, eden: n., steppe, plain; grazing land between the two long rivers; back, spine (éd, 'to send forth', + in, 'straw') [EDIN archaic frequency: 5].

     prep., on; against.

egir2,3, egi(2): princess.

egtildear, igtildear: brick wall (é, 'house', + gtildear, 'to deposit'/gtildear8, 'to mortar bricks').

egtildeir, egtildeer: n., back; stern (of a ship); end; limit; future; inheritance.

     prep., behind.

     adv., afterwards.

elamkuš(2,3,4): bladder (éllagtilde, 'kidneys', + kuš, 'skin').

ellagtilde [LAGAB]: hoop or wooden ball ?; driving stick ?; bow ?; block of wood; a number word.

éllagtilde: kidneys.

emedu(2): house/estate-born slave (eme, 'mammy', + tud/dú, 'to be born').

émeš: summer.

endub, endib: cook (en, 'lord', + dub, 'to move in a circle, shake') [ENDIB archaic frequency: 6].

engar: irrigator, farmer (en, 'lord', + agar, 'field'; Akk. 'ikkar from Semitic "to hoe, cultivate").

engiz [ME.EN.GI]: cook (en, 'lord', + gaz, 'to fracture, crush, slaughter') [ENGIZ archaic frequency: 22].

engur: subsoil water; abyssal sea of fresh water (a, 'water', + nagtilde, 'to drink', + úr, 'floor; root'; cf., an-gur4).

(gtildeiš)enkara: a weapon.

enku: fishing overseer (en, 'lord', + ku6/kua, 'fish'; same signs (ZAG.HA) as ešsad).

enkux [ZAG-HI-A]: tax assessment official.

enkum: temple treasurer; guardian deity of the foundations [ENKUM archaic frequency: 14].

enmen, emmen, immen, immin, emma, imma: thirst (en, 'time', + mun, 'salt').

énmen, émmen, ímmen, ímmin, émma, ímma: to drink beer.

ensi(3): dream interpreter (en, 'enigmatic background' + sig7, 'to dwell; to complete' ?) [ENSI archaic frequency: 8].

énsi(-k): city ruler (Old Sumerian); city governor (post-Sargonic) (en, 'lord, manager', + si, 'plowland', + genitive; cf., nísagtilde, 'governor') [ENSI2 archaic frequency: 1].

enten(a): winter (en, 'time', + ten, 'cold', + a(k), 'of').

ereš, erezwedge ?[NIN]: queen, lady.

ereš5[GAL-AN-ZU]: knowing, intelligent.

erib: daughter-in-law.

erim, érin, éren: man, servant, soldier; troops, army; gang of workers; people, folk [ERIM archaic frequency: 175; concatenation of 3 sign variants].

érim, erin7, rim(3): n., enemy; destruction [ERIM2 archaic frequency: 20].

     adj., hostile; evil.

erim3,4,5: treasury, storehouse; treasures.

(gtildeiš šim)erin, eren: cedar; to anoint with cedar-oil [ERIN archaic frequency: 105].

érin, rín: balance scale (cf., erim).

erum2,3, eru2,3: slavegirl.

esagtilde: heir son (a/e4, 'seed, offspring', + sagtilde, 'first, prime').

ésagtilde[gtildcapÁ׊E]; esagtildex[É׊E; É.ŠE; É.SAgtildcap]: granary, storeroom (é, 'house, temple', + sagtilde, 'first, prime').

(na4)esig, esi: good, fine; solid, strong; ebony; diorite; olivine-gabbro.

esir(2): crude bitumen (usu, 'strength' or esi, 'strong', + ir(2), 'liquid secretion').

kušèsir: sandal; shoe.

ešda: (cf., šíta).

èšda: (cf., šita).

ešemen(2,3): jump rope; play; celebration (éše, 'rope', + men, 'both, two').

ešgar: (cf., zeh) [? EŠGAR archaic frequency: 12].

eškiri, ešgiri: nose rope, halter, bridle; jumping rope (éše, 'rope', + kìri, 'nose, muzzle').

ešsad: fisherman (éše, 'rope', + sud, 'to immerse, sink'; same signs (ZAG.HA) as enku).

eštubku6: a river carp: binnî.

ezem: (cf., ezen).

ezen, ezem: festival, feast (uzu, 'cut of meat', + en, 'time') [EZEN archaic frequency: 114; concatenation of 3 sign variants].

ezinu: grain, cereal; the deity Ašnan [EZINU archaic frequency: 24; concatenation of 4 sign variants].

gagar [KI]: area.

gagig: to lament; to wail (, 'to exclaim', + gig, 'illness; injury').

gakkul: clay brewing-vessel, mash tun.

galam: n., stairs.

     v., to ascend, climb.

     adj., ingenious, clever, artistic, complicated, elaborate; tall, high.

gamar: to be overwhelming (gam, 'to kneel', + mer, 'violent storm').

gamun: cumin; caraway seed.

ganam4, gana4: (cf., us5, u8).

ganam6, gana6 [DARA4]: ewe.

ganba: marketplace; price equivalent.

ganzer(2,3): darkness; the netherworld (cf., ga-an-zír).

garadin(4,5), karadin(4,5): shock, pile of sheaves (on a harvested field) (guru7, 'grain heap', + tun(3), 'to constrict').

garaš: straw; supply master.

gáraš, karaš: military encampment; catastrophe.

gàrašsar: leek(s).

garaš3,4: decision; oracle.

gašam: craftsman, artisan; skilled person; job, work; office holder; wisdom.

gašan: lady, mistress; queen (cf., ga-ša-an) (Emesal dialect word, in which nin becomes šan).

gaššu: intelligent.

gazinbu, gazimbi, gazibu: pole; stake; beam.

gibil(4): new; fresh; renewal; to renovate (gúb, 'to purify, cleanse', + ul, 'to shine') [GIBIL archaic frequency: 77].

gíbil: to burn; burning (gu7, 'to consume', + bil, 'to burn').

gidim(2,4,7): spirit, ghost (gig, 'to be sick', + dìm, 'sickness demon', or gi6, 'black', + dim4, 'to approach').

gidim6, gidi6: eclipsed, darkened (gíg/gi6, 'black', + dím, 'to make').

(gtildeiš)gigir(2): wheel(s); chariot; wagon; coach (reduplicated gur4/gir8, 'to turn, roll') [PU2 archaic frequency: 37].

gilim-(b), gili, gil, gi16: n., reed bundle; dancer; bride crown (gi, 'reeds', + lam, 'abundance') [GIL archaic frequency: 1].

     v., to twist; to bend, bow; to cross, bar; to fence off; to lie athwart; to go across; to cross plow; to mess up.

     adj., to be twisted, tangled; opaque; to be corrupted; destroyed.

girim, girin, gir8: piece of clay; to detach a piece of clay; to creep or glide on the ground (gur5, 'to separate, divide', + imi/im, 'clay'; cf., gurun).

gìrim, gírin: (cf., gurun).

giriš: butterfly; moth.

gitlam(2,3,4), nit(a)lam(2,3,4): lover; honeymooner; first husband; spouse (nitah, 'male, man', + lam, 'luxuriance').

gúdibir: war (gud(2), 'warrior', + bir, 'to wreck, murder').

gudug, gudu4, gúda: a ritually pure, linen-clothed priest who cares for and feeds the gods; divinely anointed.

gukin(2): entire inhabited world.

gukkal [KUN.GAL]: (cf., kungal).

gunni: kiln; stove.

gurdub: reed basket.

gurud(2): to throw.

gurum[GAM]: n., heap, pile; arched beam; bending.

     v., to be bent; to subdue.

gúrum: inspection.

gurun, gurin; girin, girim; gìrim, gírin: fruit; berry; flower (cf., gi-rin) (gúr, 'sphere', + an, 'high'; cf., kurun).

guruš, gtildeuruš: sledge (archaic pictogram); adult workman, laborer (human sledge); young man (gúr, 'wheels' [cf., gigir], + uš, 'to stand upon') [? GURUŠ archaic frequency: 68; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

guruš3,4, guru5, gur5; kur5: to circumcise (?); to trim away, strip; to cut, clip (a part of the body); to notch, incise; to fell trees; to be parted, relieved of (gur10, 'sickle', + gtildeìš/uš, 'penis').

gurušda: (cf., kurušda).

guzza: throne; chair.

gtildeadub: tablet container (gtildear;gtildeá, 'to store', + dub, 'clay tablets'; cf, lúša13[gtildcapÁ]-dub-ba).

gtildeagia: cloister; reed basket; a measure of fish.

gtildealga, malga: advice, counsel; wise one; reflection, consideration (loan from Akkadian milkum; cf., Orel & Stolbova #1791 *mulak-/*mulik- 'stranger, chief') [GALGA archaic frequency: 16; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

gtildeansis, gtildeasisx: darkness; the netherworld; eclipse.

gtildeanun: barn, storehouse, granary (gtildear;gtildeá, 'storeroom', + nun, 'great') [GANUN archaic frequency: 3].

gtildearim: pool, pond (cf., dagrim) (gtildear, 'storeroom', + imi/im, 'clay, mud').

gtildearza, gtildearzu[PA.DIgtildcapIR]: custom(s); rite(s); divine or royal orders (gtildear, 'form, appearance' or gtildear, 'to deliver', + zu, 'to know').

gtildeárza, gtildeárzu, gtildeirza[PA.LUGAL]: office, duties; rules.

gtildeešbu, gtildeešba, gtildeešpa[gtildcapIŠ-ŠUB]: boomerang; throw-stick.

gtildeéšbu, gtildeéšpu[ŠU.DIM4]: fist(s); grappling hook for a wrestler (gtildeiš, 'wooden tool', + bu(6), 'to pull, draw').

gtildeešta, gtilde2,3,4, gtilde2,3: sixty (gtildeiš, 'tool', + tar, 'to cut; to determine' ?).

gtildeeštin: vine; wine; grape juice; bunch of grapes (gtildeiš, 'tree', + tin, 'life; wine') [GEŠTIN archaic frequency: 42; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

gtildeeštug(2,3), gtildeeštu(2,3)[PI]: n., ear(s); hearing; understanding, intelligence (gtildeiš, 'tool', + tuku/tug, 'to receive') [GEŠTUG archaic frequency: 108; concatenation of 5 sign variants].

     v., to hear; to understand.

gtildeeš'u: (cf., gtildeéš×u in compound section).

(gtildeiš)gtildeidru, gtildeidri[PA]: stick; staff; scepter; stick used to measure the height of a pile of grain (gtildeiš, 'wood', + dúru, 'low end, base' where stick was thrust to the base of a grain pile; cf., duru6 reading of PA and še gtildeiš-è-a).

gtildeigtilderi(2): to dive; to sink, founder (reduplicated gtildeiri5, 'to seek refuge').

(gtildeiš)gtildeisal: oar; rudder (gtilde, 'wooden tool', + sal, 'thin, wide') [GISAL archaic frequency: 3; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

gtildeiskim, gtildeiškim, iskim, izkim, gtildeizkim: sign, signal; omen (gtildeiš, 'tool', + kígtilde, 'message').

gtildeissu, gtildeizzu[gtildcapIŠ.MI]: shadow; shade (gtildeiš, 'tool, agent', + su, 'substitute'[Akk. tarib(t)um]).

gtildeišbun: (cultic) feast.

gtildeišgal: chair; throne; station (gtildeiš, 'wooden thing', + gal, 'big, great') [GIŠGAL archaic frequency: 9].

(gtildeiš)gtildeišimmar: date palm; trunk of a date palm tree (cf., (gtildeiš)nimbar) [GIŠIMMAR archaic frequency: 55; concatenation of 5 sign variants].

gtildeizzal: attention; intelligence (gtildeiš,'tool', + zal,'to pass time') [? GIZZAL archaic frequency: 1].

gtildeuruš: (cf., guruš).

gtildeuškin: (now read as kù-sig17).

gtildeušur: rafter beam (gtildeiš, 'wood, tool', + ùr, 'roof; beam').

habrud: cesspit; pit, hole; cave, cavern (hab, 'to stink', + bùru(-d), 'hole').

halba(2,3), halbi(2,3): frost, freezing.

harub[DAG.KISIM5]: carob.

(gtildeiš)hašhur: apple (?); apricot (?) (haš, 'to break off (twigs or branches)', + gurun;gúr, 'fruit; sphere') [HAŠHUR archaic frequency: 101].

(gi)henbur(2): (green) reed shoots, stalks (he, 'abundant', + in, 'discrete individuals', + buru14/bur14, 'harvest').

henzer: weakling; cripple; infant.

hilib: netherworld (possible foreign loanword).

hirin, hirim: the root stalks of the spikenard, imported from India, and used in perfumes; a weed grass (he, 'abundant', + ir, 'perfume', + in, 'straw').

hubur: netherworld (hab, 'to rot, stink', + úr, 'root; base').

huluh: to tremble; to be terrified; to terrify.

ibila: son; heir, successor; inheritance (íb (subj. prefix) + íla, 'he carries it').

idigna: the Tigris river (ída/íd, 'river', + ì, 'impersonal verbal conjugation prefix', + gtildein, 'to go', + nominative a, "the river that goes", the Tigris was a faster-moving river than the Euphrates; it was less likely to overflow because, not depositing as much silt, it did not built up its bed as high) [? IDIGNA archaic frequency: 25].

idim: n., spring, underground water; weight, mass (ída, 'river', + mú, 'to sprout, appear').

     adj., wild, raging, mad; considerable, distinguished.

ígira: heron (igi, 'the eye', + ra, 'to strike').

(gtildeiš)ildag(2,3): a species of poplar tree (íl, 'to be high; to shine', + dág, 'brilliant').

ilduma(2,3), ildum(2/3), ildu(2/3): crowd [ILDUM archaic frequency: 5; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

ilimmu: nine (ía/í, 'five', + limmu, 'four').

(gtildeiš)illuru, illulu, illar: throw-stick; javelin; bow; arc (íla, 'to lift', + ru, 'to send').

imgtildeagtildea(2,3): husked (?) emmer wheat.

imin(2,3): seven; totality; innumerable; all (ía/í, 'five', + min, 'two').

immal(2): milk cow (cf., im-ma-al).

immen, immin, imma: (cf., enmen).

ímmen, ímmin, ímma: (cf., énmen).

immindu: roasting, baking oven (imi/im, 'clay', + ninda, 'bread').

imhur[IGI.A]: foam.

inim: word; statement; command, order, decree; oath, agreement; matter, affair, concern, subject (in, 'one discrete individual', + eme, 'speech').

isimu2,3, isim2,3: shoot, sprout; offspring, descendant (i, 'sprout', + si, 'straight, long, narrow', + mú, 'to grow').

isiš2,3: n., moaning; laughter.

     v., to weep; to laugh.

iskim: (cf., gtildeiskim).

išib: n., priest who performs exorcisms, incantations, lustrations and purification.

     adj., clean; anointed.

išin [PA-ŠE]: stalk.

itima, itim, idi: cella, chapel.

itud, itid, itu, iti, id8; it4,id4: moon; month; moonlight (te, 'to approach, meet', + ud, 'sun').

izkim: (cf., gtildeiskim).

kabar, kapar[PA.DAG.KISIM5×GAG]: shepherd boy (, 'gate', + bar, 'to open').

kadra(2): gift, bribe (kad4, 'to tie together', + ru, 'present, gift').

kalag, kala, kal: v., to repair, mend (kal, 'excellent', + aka/ag, 'to make').

     adj., strong; swift [GURUŠ+2-N14 (wagon pictogram) archaic frequency: 7; concatenation of 3 sign variants].

kalam: the land (of Sumer); nation [KALAM archaic frequency: 91; concatenates 6 sign variants].

kankal: hard soil; uncultivated land (ki, 'earth, place', + nu, 'not', + kal[-l], 'excellent, valuable').

kapar: (cf., kabar).

kaskal: expedition, caravan; road; journey (kaš4/kas4, 'to travel fast', + kalag/kal, 'swift') [KASKAL archaic frequency: 35].

kašbir: small beer; sweet beer (kaš, 'beer', + bír, 'to sniff').

kešda, kešdr?, kéš-(d): n., knot; taboo; inhibition (ki, 'place', + šita4, 'to bind') [KEŠ2 archaic frequency: 6].

     v., to bind, wrap, tie; to join; to fasten; to harness; to snatch.

(gtildeiš)kešda: weir.

kíbir: firewood, kindling.

(gtildeiš)kíbir: pitchfork.

na4kikkin [HAR]: mortar.

kíkkin [HAR.HAR]: milling; mill house; adj. for milling women (reduplicated kín, 'hand mill').

kilib[LAGAB]: package, bundle.

kìlib, kìli: totality; star(s).

kilim, gílim, gilili: group of (wild) animals; rodents or other very small mammals.

kinbur: bird's nest or perch (ki, 'place', + an, 'high', + bùru/bùr, 'receptacle').

kinda: barber.

kínda[URI]; kindax[LAK-419]: a type of vessel for measuring barley or holding water.

kindagtildeal(2): overseer of a group of (five) slaves.

kingal: commander, director (gtilde, 'to order', + gal, 'big, great') [KINGAL archaic frequency: 39].

kingusili: greater part; five-sixths (5/6) (gtilde, 'task', + sílig, 'hand [of five fingers]').

kiraši: emmer wheat for making beer.

kisal: courtyard; weight measure (ki, 'place', + sal, 'spacious') [KISAL archaic frequency: 145 ?; concatenates 5 ? sign variants].

kisim(3,5,6,7): milk-processing wasters; spoiled milk; smelly cheese [KISIM archaic frequency: 67; concatenates 3 sign variants].

kisim(4): cheese maggot.

kisim2,3,5: stable, pen.

kislah(2)[KI.UD]: empty lot; threshing floor (ki, 'place', + luh/làh, 'to sweep clean'; cf., ki-sug8).

kissa: supporting wall.

kišib, kiši5,10: mouse.

kišib(3): n., hand; fist; seal; sealed bulla; receipt (cf., kéš, 'to snatch; to bind').

     v., to seal.

kišib7,8,9, kiši7,8,9: ant.

(gtildeiš)kišik(2), kiša(2), kiši16/17[Ú.gtildcapÍR]: a thorny bush [? KIŠIK archaic frequency: 21; concatenates 3 sign variants].

kúkku [MI.MI]: dark.

kukkuš, kukkuzwedge ? [IŠ]: a type of flour.

kunga[ŠÚ.MUL]; kúnga[BAR.AN, ŠÚ.AN]: donkey; onager; mule.

kungal, gukkal [LU.HÚL]: fat-tailed sheep (kun, 'tail', + gal, 'big') [GUKKAL archaic frequency: 36; concatenation of 4 sign variants].

kunigtildex, kúnin: refined asphalt, bitumen (ku, 'to build', + nígtilde, 'assets').

kurku(2): bounty, abundance (reduplicated kur9, 'to deliver').

kurum6, kur6: a basket of food-rations; share(s).

kurum7, kuru7, kur7: n., lookout, spy (ki, 'place', + ùru(-m), 'to watch, guard').

     v., to watch.

kurun(2,3): sweet red wine; wine grape, grapevine, or grape cluster (cf., gurun).

kuruš, kuš6, ku7: sweet; plump, fat; honey (cf., kurušda).

kurušda, gurušda, kuruzwedgea ?: sweet fodder (for fattening cattle); fattener (of cattle); stock-breeder (kuruš, 'sweet; fat', + da(5), 'side; to surround' ?) [GURUŠDA archaic frequency: 61].

kušum: to scorn, reject, hurt; to abandon (ki, 'place', + ušum, 'solitary').

kušumx, kušu[U.PIRIgtildcap]: herd of cattle or sheep.

lagab: block, slab (of stone); trunk (of tree) (cf., kilib) (lag, 'clod, piece', + gub, 'to stand') [LAGAB archaic frequency: 84; concatenates 2 sign variants].

lagar: temple servant who pronounces invocations to the god [LAGAR archaic frequency: 51; concatenates 4 sign variants].

lagarx[SAL.HÚB]: (divine) vizier; a high ranking cultic functionary.

lahtan(2): beer vat [LAHTAN2 archaic frequency: 7].

lahtanx, lahta: a washing vessel (luh/làh, 'to wash', + tán, 'to become clean').

libir: n., old age [LIBIR archaic frequency: 1].

     v., to last long; to live long.

     adj., old, ancient; traditional; used, worn (la, 'youthful freshness', + bír, 'to shrivel up').

libiš, lipiš: courage; anger; core, heart; family (Akk. libbu 'heart').

lidim: to receive (in charity) (la, 'abundance', + dim4, 'to beg').

lilib[IGI.IGI]: to steal.

liliz: a drum.

lillan: stalk with ripe ear of grain.

lirum, liru, liri: n., physical strength.

     adj., strong, powerful.

lugal: king; owner, master (, 'man', + gal, 'big') [LUGAL archaic frequency: 80].

lugud, lugtildeud(?): pus; serous fluid (gtilde, 'fault, error' + éd, 'to emerge').

lúgud: short; short person (, 'person', + gud8, 'short').

lukur: chaste priestess, nun; courtesan (?) (, 'grown man', + kúr, 'hostile').

lulim: stag, hart (male of the red deer; cf., máš-lulim) (Akkadian loanword).

luhummu[gtildcapIŠ-MI]: mud (cf., lu-hu-um).

lunga(2,3), lumgi(2,3): (cf., ningi(2,3)).

makkaš(2): wailing; clamor (mah, 'great',? + kuš7, 'devastation').

mangaga: palm fiber, bast (man, 'partner', + gag, 'peg, nail', + a(k), 'genitive').

mašda: drawing; gazelle (máš, 'to scrutinize', + dù, 'to make, apply') [? DARA3 archaic frequency: 11; concatenation of 4 sign variants].

mašda(2): commoner; destitute.

maškim: inspector, monitor, sheriff, commissioner (máš, 'to inspect', + kígtilde, 'work').

megida(2), megidda(2): sow (female pig).

mezem [ÚMBISAG]: maintenance, support (?).

middu(2), mitum(2): mace (the weapon).

mudla, madlu, mudul: pole; stake (mud, 'a right-angled tool', + lal/lá, 'to hang').

múdru: fuller; launderer (mur10/mu4, 'to clothe oneself', + duru5, 'moist, fresh').

muhaldim [MU]: baker, cook (, 'to mill, grind', + hal, 'to divide; portion', + dím, 'to fashion, create').

mùnsub: shepherd.

munšub(2): hair; hairy skin; pelt, hide; barber ('it falls down oneself') [? MUNŠUB archaic frequency: 3; concatenates 2 sign variants].

munus[SAL]; nunus[Emesal]: female; woman (this pronunciation found in absolute inflection, cf., ) (mí, 'woman', + nuz/nus, 'egg') (cf., mí/mu10, nunuz, and etymology of nitah).

úmunzur[KI.AN.ŠEŠ.KI]: bitter plants.

murgu: dung (sheep).

murgu(2), mur7,8: neck; back; shoulders; ridge (mur, 'lungs', + gú, 'neck').

murub(2): vulva; woman; sexual charm [MURUB2 archaic frequency: 4].

murub4, múru: central, median area; middle; waist, hips; in-between terrain; interval; battle (mur10, 'to dress oneself', + íb, 'middle; loins'; cf., itimurub4).

murum5,11, muru3,5, urum: brother-in-law (, 'woman', + ùru(-m), 'to watch, guard' or úrum, 'relatives').

mušen: bird (muš, 'reptile', + an, 'sky') [MUŠEN archaic frequency: 178].

muššagana: voracious hunger.

nagtildear: adze, wood-chisel; carpenter; craftsman (na4, 'stone', + gtildeír, 'knife') [NAGAR archaic frequency: 168; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

nagtildegtildea, nigtildegtildei [AN.NA]: tin, pewter (gtilde, 'valuable thing', + gtildear;gtildeá, 'to store').

namešda[ŠITA.gtildcapIŠ.NÁM]: top warrior, king (lit., 'the power of the mace').

nanam: n., true measure (na4, 'token, counter', + nam, 'destiny' or just reduplicated nam).

     adj., reliable, true; honest, decent.

dnanna: the moon as a god [NANNA archaic frequency: 49; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

nidba(2): (cf., nindaba).

nigida[PI]: (cf., ni-gi-da ;bariga).

nigtildear[NI9.gtildcapAR]: a dark room; premature or monstrous fetus (ni9,'premature birth', + gtildear,'to deliver').

nigtildein(2): n., enclosure, circle; capacity; whole (cf., kilib and gur4-gur4) [NIGIN archaic frequency: 11].

     v., to halt, turn away; to turn round; to surround; to assemble; to pen up cattle; to wander about; to circle; to make the rounds (usually gtildein[LAGAB] for hamtu form and nigtildein or ni10-ni10[LAGAB.LAGAB] for marû form) (ní;ne4, 'fear', + gtildein, 'to go').

nigtildein(2,3): vertigo (as a disease); faintness, dizziness; thirst.

gtildein, ni9: premature or stillborn child; malformed child; monstrosity.

nigtildein5,7,8,9, nimen(3,4,5); nagtildea: district, province.

nigtildeir(2), migtildeir(2): a bride's male attendant; herald, night watchman, town crier; bailiff (probable conflation of separate words: mí,'woman' and nim,'morning', + gtildear,'to deliver') [NIMGIR archaic frequency: 62].

(gtildeiš)nimbar: date-palm (nim, 'to be high', + bar;bur, 'to release; meal').

nimgir(2): (cf., nigtildeir(2)).

nimin, nin5: forty (niš, 'twenty', + min, 'two').

nimur[KI.NE]: kiln; potash.

nimurx[PIRIgtildcap.TUR]: leopard, panther (from Akk. nimru(m) I).

ninda: bread; bakery good; food (gtilde, 'valuables', + dar, 'to slice') [GAR archaic frequency: 409].

nindan, ninda: a length measure, rod = 12 cubits (kùš) = 6 meters; one side of a sar/šar, 'garden plot' square measure (from Akk. middatu, mindatu, 'to measure').

nínda, inda; índa: hopper or seeding apparatus of the seeder plow; funnel, tube; flower; bushel; pure-bred breeding bull; fish roe; milt; ancestors (from Akk. middatu, mindatu, 'to measure') [NINDA2 archaic frequency: 20].

nindaba(2), nidba(2): food offering (ninda, 'food', + ba, 'to give').

ningi(2,3), lunga(2,3), lumgi(2,3): brewer (nagtilde, 'to drink'; lum, 'to be satiated, full'; lùm, 'a small pot').

ninindu, nindu, inda4: oven; stove (cf., immindu).

ninkum[NIN.PAB.SIG7.NUN.ME.UBARA]: temple treasurer; guardian deity of the foundations [NINKUM archaic frequency: 11].

nisagtilde(2), nesagtilde(2): first fruits (offering); spring time (month); dough; wine cellar ?; foremost; governor (, 'self; vigor', + sagtilde, 'first') [NISAG2 archaic frequency: 94; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

nisig, nisi, nissa: n., greens, vegetables (gtilde, 'valuables', + sig7, 'green, yellow').

     adj., beautiful; blue; green.

nitadam, nitalam: wife.

nitah(2), nita(2): male; man; manly (ní,'self', + tah,'to multiply') [GIŠ3 archaic frequency: 16; concatenation of 2 sign variants; archaic frequency: 101; concatenates 2 sign variants].

numun, nugtildeunx, nigtildeunx: n., seed; sowing; cornfield; offspring, progeny (gtilde, 'thing', + gùn, 'dots, speckles') [NUMUN archaic frequency: 22].

     v., to produce.

(ú)númun: a type of grass (halfâ'), rushes (cf., úaški) [NUMUN2 archaic frequency: 2].

nundum, nundun: lip (reduplicated tùn, 'lip').

nunuz, nunus: egg(s); offspring; female (reduplicated nuz, 'egg') [NUNUZ archaic frequency: 134; concatenation of 5 sign variants].

palil(2): advance troops, shock troops, leader (bala, 'to cross over', + lú, 'men').

parim: arid land; dry land (as opposed to marsh land or water) (cf., bar-rim4).

pirigtilde(3): lion (poetic); light (bar6/7, 'to shine', + nígtilde, 'thing') [PIRIG archaic frequency: 103; concatenation of 5 sign variants].

pírigtilde: bright.

pisagtilde(2/3), pisan(2/3): (open) basket; box, chest; frame (bad/be, 'to open', + sagtilde, 'head').

punigtildex: (cf., bunigtildex).

puzur: (cf., buzur).

sabad(2,3), sad2,3,4 [gtildcapÁ×U, gtildcapÁ×BAD, gtildcapÁ×SIG7 ]; šab, sab [PA.IB]: hips, loins; middle (su, 'body', + bad, 'to open').

sagtildedulx[U+SAgtildcap]: hat, headdress (sagtilde, 'head', + dul, 'to cover, protect').

sagtildegtildea(2,3,4), sangtildea(2,3,4): a sprinkler, used for ritual cleaning; economic director of a temple or occupation (such as all the smiths) (sagtilde, 'head', + gtildear;gtildeá, 'to store') [SANGA archaic frequency: 530; concatenates 3 sign variants].

sagtildešu: helmet, cap, headdress (sagtilde, 'head', + šúš/šú, 'to cover') [SAGŠU archaic frequency: 14].

sagtildetag, santak(2,3,4): triangle; (written) wedge; single (sagtilde, 'head', + tag, 'to hold').

sagtildetušx[U+SAgtildcap]: hat, headdress (sagtilde, 'head', + tuš, 'to reside, sit').

(gtildeiš)sahab(2), suhub3,4: bar, bolt (of a door).

sahar: silt, dust, sand, earth, mud, loam; rubbish; sediment (cf., kuš7) (sa5, 'red-brown', + hara, 'crushed, pulverized').

dugsáhar [SAR]: clay pot.

saman(2,3): yoke, leash, or rope (for an ox).

sangtildea(2,3,4): (cf., sagtildegtildea).

santana, šandana, šandan: herbalist, horticulturist, date orchard administrator (sagtilde, 'head, human', + tin, 'to cure'; cf. also, šegtilde4, 'chills' and šegtilde6, 'to be hot') [ŠANDANA archaic frequency: 3; concatenates 2 sign variants].

sidug: ravine; pit; pitfall; trap (si, 'to be straight, narrow', + dug, 'vessel').

sikil: v., to be/make clean, pure (siki, 'hair' ?, + ul, 'to shine'; cf., suku5, 'to shine brightly', sig7, 'to create; to make beautiful') [SIKIL archaic frequency: 7].

     adj., clean, fresh, pure, virginal.

silagtilde, sila11: to knead (dough or clay); to slay.

silig: (cf., šilig).

sílig: hand.

silig3,4: sin.

silim[DI]: to be/make in good shape, healthy, complete (usually considered Akk. loanword, root means 'peace' in 18 of 21 Semitic languages, but Sumerians used word in greeting and root not in Orel & Stolbova's Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary; cf., sil5, 'pleasure, joy', + lum, 'to grow luxuriantly').

simug: metal-sculptor, smith (si4, 'red', + mug, 'to engrave') [SIMUG archaic frequency: 13].

sipad, sibad, sipa; šuba; sub2,3: n., shepherd; keeper [SIPA archaic frequency: 4].

     v., to pasture, tend (si, 'to keep in order', + bad, 'to let out', or pàd, 'to find').

sipar: (cf., zabar).

siskur(2), sizkur(2): n., offering, sacrifice with entreaties, prayers, rites.

     v., to pray; to sacrifice (isiš2,3, 'to weep', + kur9, 'to bring, deliver').

subar: slave; Northerner (su, 'body', + bar, 'foreign').

dsuena, dsuen[EN.ZU]: the moon (, 'knowledge', + en(2,3), 'time', + -/ak/, 'of').

sugtildein, sumun, sun, šum4[BAD]: n., rot, decay; something rotten; the past (su, 'body', + gtildein, 'to go') [? ZATU-644 archaic frequency: 65; concatenation of 2 sign variants].

     v., to decay; to ruin.

     adj., old, ancient.

suhirin[SU7.SUM]: the threshing floor with the piles of grain and straw (su7, 'threshing floor', + hirin, 'sweet smelling grass').

suhur: n., hair, scalp; tree top; crest (su6, 'beard', + he, 'abundant', + ùr, 'roof'; cf., suhuš) [SUHUR archaic frequency: 239].

     v., to trim or comb the hair; to scratch; to make an incision.

suhurku6: giant carp, barbel.

suhuš: roots; support, foundation; to lift; support (su4, 'to grow, multiply', + he, 'abundant', + uš, 'to support'; cf., suhur).

sukkal: messenger, courier, envoy, representative; minister, vizier (su, 'body', + kalag/kal, 'strong, swift') [SUKKAL archaic frequency: 130].

sukud; zugud: n., height; depth (su, 'body', + gíd, 'long') [SUKUD archaic frequency: 15].

     v., to be/make high.

     adj., high; tall.

súkud, suku5: to measure, distribute; to flash, shine brightly (cf., zú...kud/ku5).

sulummar[KI.SAgtildcap.DU]: disgrace.

sumaš: a common marine fish [SUMAŠ archaic frequency: 3].

sumug(3,4,5), samag(3,4,5): mole; birthmark (su, 'flesh', + mug, 'to engrave; sty').

sumun: (cf., sugtildein).

sumur, šúr, súr: n., fierceness (Akkadian loanword - šamru, 'fierce, enraged, wild') [ŠUR2 archaic frequency: 17; concatenates 2 sign variants].

     v., to be enraged (against someone: -da-).

     adj., fierce; furious; stubborn.

surim: (cf., surin).

susbu: clean, bathed; a priest.

šabra, šapra [PA.AL]: temple administrator; commissioner (šab, 'to gather up', + ru, 'to give') [ŠABRA archaic frequency: 1].

šagan, šakan: a large jar for oil; god of wild creatures (šag4/šà, 'stomach, container', + gan, 'to bring forth') [? ŠAGAN archaic frequency: 55].

šaggina, šaggin, šagina: military governor (šag4, 'guts', + gi-na, 'steady, reliable') [? ŠAGINA archaic frequency: 1].

šagtildear: hunger (cf., šà-gtildear).

šakan: (cf., šagan).

šákan: official in charge of expenditures - comptroller (šu, 'portion', + gan, 'to bring forth'; cf. also, šaggina).

šakar: milk jug (šag4/šà, 'stomach, container', + kir, 'cow').

dugšakira(3), šakir(3): butter tub, churn; churning; pitcher (šag4/šà, 'stomach, container', + kir, 'cow' + /ak/, genitive) [ŠAKIRA3 archaic frequency: 56; concatenates 3 sign variants].

úšakira(2), šakir(2): henbane.

šandana: (cf., santana).

šaran; šarin: tick, bedbug (šár, 'to be numerous', + in, 'straw').

šardiš, šargtildeeš[ŠÁR×DIŠ]; šargalx[ŠÁR×GAL]: '216000'.

šassuk[SAgtildcap-GÍN]: registrar of deeds.

šedur: caterpillar cocoon (éše, 'rope', + dúr, 'dwelling').

šembi: kohl; antimony (as makeup).

šenbar: a type of wild boar (?); Mesopotamian fallow deer (?) (šeg9, 'boar', + bar, 'foreign').

(gtildeiš)šennur: a fruit tree, quince or medlar [ŠENNUR archaic frequency: 11; concatenates 2 sign variants].

šerim(2), šerin, sérim: a part of the loom - either the harness or the heddle [TAG archaic frequency: 48 ?; concatenates 7 ? sign variants].

šerimsur: caterpillar cocoon (šerim, 'part of a weaving loom', + zar/sur8, 'to exude; to spin [a cocoon]').

(gtildeiš)šibir, sibir: n., shepherd's staff ending in a curved end, i.e., a crook; also such a staff used by a god or king as a scepter (sipad; šuba, 'shepherd', + re7, 'to lead; to bear').

     adj., slanted, crooked.

šidim, šitim, šidi[GIM]: architect, mason (šid3,4,5, 'to bind', + dím, 'to build, make') [ŠIDIM archaic frequency: 35].

šikin2,3: a jar for body oil, ointment, salve.

šilam: milk-producing mother cow (šu, 'to pour', + lam, 'abundance').

šilig(5), silig(5): v., to cease, stop; to lay aside one's work.

     adj., extremely powerful, strong(cf., (gtildeiš)šilig and nam-šilig).

(gtildeiš)šilig: axe.

(gtildeiš)šinig: tamarisk.

šiten: course of march; passage (šìta, 'channel', + un, 'people').

šitim: (cf., šidim).

šubun: (cf., gtildeišbun).

šubur: earth; slave, deprived person [ŠUBUR archaic frequency: 181].

šudug(2), šutug(2): a reed hut for purification rites; basket.

(gtildeiš)šudun(2,3,4,5), (gtildeiš)šudul(2,3,4,5), (gtildeiš)uštil: yoke, crosspiece (šúš/šú, 'to cover', + dun(4), 'warp yarns connecting opposite sides of a loom frame' and dul, 'to cover').

(kuš)šuhub(2), suhub(2) [MUL]: n., boots (šúš/šú, 'to cover', + gub, 'to stand').

     v., to step; to feed by grazing; to trample.

gišukur: fence.

(urudu/gtildeiš)šukur: spear, lance (šu, 'hand', + kúr, 'enemy').

šurun, šurim: animal excrement, dung; stable (šur, 'to flow, drip', + imi/im, 'clay, mud').

šurun4,5, šurin4,5: cockroach; cricket.

šušana: one third (part).

šušur(2): stove grill (šúš, 'to cover', + ùru, 'hot, luminous metal').

šutum[GI.NA.AB.UL]: lizard.

tabira, tibira: metalworker (tab, 'to hold, clasp', + ùru, 'luminous object').

taltal: knowledge, experience, wisdom (reduplicated tál, 'understanding').

(gtildeiš)taškarin, taskarin[TÚG]: box shrub or small tree (or its heavy, hard wood) (may be Akk. loan).

temen[TE]: perimeter; foundations; foundation-charter; foundation platform; a figure on the ground made of ropes stretched between pegs; excavation (often written te-me-en) [TE archaic frequency: 199].

tešlug: small young animal, fledgling.

tibir: carving knife.

tibir(2,3,4,5): hand; palm; blow, strike ('life' + 'open, release' ? 'the beggar's open palm').

tíbira, ibira: merchant, tradesman (Proverb 3.108 describes how the peddler 'flays' or 'skins' the open hand of the customer).

tidnum[UG-UG or ÚG-ÚG], midnum: tiger ?, leopard ? [? TIDNUM archaic frequency: 1].

tilhar: cloud.

tilmun: distinguished, respectful.

titab(2): beer mash - bappir mixed with munu4 and allowed to ferment (tìl/ti, 'life', + tab, 'to burn').

tugul: hip, thigh (túg, 'cloth garment', + íla, 'to lift, carry').

(gtildeiš)tukul: mace (thigh bone ?); weapon.

tukum, tukun: if, in case; at once.

tukumbi: if, in case; please; certainly (usually followed by hamtu verb form).

túkur[KA׊E]: to gnaw, nibble; silence.

ubara[EZEN×KASKAL]: patronage, protection.

ubilla(2): soot (ú, 'plant', + bil, 'to burn', + lal/lá, 'to be deficient, light, high').

ubur: female breast, teat (ub4, 'cavity', + ir(2), 'liquid secretion').

udug, utug: pitfall; a demonic being.

údug, útug: a weapon.

udul/utul(3,4,5,6,10): herdsman (udu, 'sheep', + lú, 'man') [UDUL archaic frequency: 32; concatenates 4 sign variants].

udun[GIR4]: kiln (for pottery and bricks); oven.

ugnim: crowd; army; troops; workgang; campaign.

ugra: reed bundle.

ugula [PA]: overseer; captain; foreman (loan from Akkadian waklu where Christopher Ehret's 1995 Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic has *wax "to look at").

ugun[U.DAR/GÙN]: adorning speckles and lines; inlaid decoration (u, 'ten, many', + gùn, 'to decorate with colors' may be popular scribal etymology; cf., ug, 'lion, any deadly cat' + n, 'discrete point').

úgunu, úgun[GAŠAN]: lady, mistress, ruler; ointment, application.

ùgun, ugu(4): n., progenitor.

     v., to beget, bear.

     adj., natural, genetic.

ukum: dust (devil).

úkur: butcher (ug5, 'to kill', + kir, 'cow').

ukur3,4, uku2,5: n., poor man; poverty.

     v., to be or become poor.

úkuš: cucumber.

ulul(2): binding; harness; leash, chain (u, 'ten, many', + lal, 'to strap, harness').

ulušin: emmer beer.

úlutin: attractive, attention-getting.

umah: marsh, swamp (u, 'plant', + mah, 'high').

umbin: nail; claw; talon; hoof; nail impression (on a clay tablet); hair pin; wheel (of a chariot, wagon) [UMBIN archaic frequency: 34; concatenates 4 sign variants].

umbisagtilde: scribe (umbin, 'nail impression [on a tablet]', + sagtilde, 'individual human').

ummeda(2), éme: wetnurse; mammy (umu/um, 'nurse', + da, 'to hold, protect').

kušummud, ùmmu[EDIN.LÁ]: (goatskin) water bag.

umun: title of respect; Emesal dialect form of en.

úmun, umum: mold; raw form or material; idea; knowledge; scholarship [UMUN2 archaic frequency: 114].

ùmun: flea; louse.

umun5,6,11: (stagnant) pool; swamp; a swamp plant.

umuš, uš4: discernment; intelligence; reflection, consideration; decision (u6, 'to be impressed' + máš, 'to examine, inspect').

unkin, ukkin: communal assembly, folkmoot (ùgtildea/un, 'people', + kígtilde/kin, 'to seek, fetch'; cf., unkin-gtildear-ra) [UKKIN archaic frequency: 108; concatenates 3 sign variants].

unug(2), unu(2): dwelling; fortress; jewelry, adornment; cheek; the city of Uruk (ùgtildea/un, 'people', + ig, 'door') [UNUG archaic frequency: 206; concatenates 3 sign variants].

ùnug, unu6 [TEMEN.ÈŠ = TE.AB]: elevated shrine, temple; living room; sanctuary.

uraš[IB]: earth; loincloth; secret.

úrdu[ARAD×KUR]: (cf., arad).

úrgu: ferocity, rage (ur + gù, 'barking dog').

urim2,5, uri2,5: doorpost (cf., ùru(-m)) [URI5 archaic frequency: 21].

urin, ùri[ŠEŠ]: eagle; standard, emblem, banner; blood [ŠEŠ ZATU-523 archaic frequency: 25; concatenates 2 sign variants].

ursub(2), urrub(2): (cf., zurzub(2)).

urudu, uruda, urud: copper; metal (ùru, 'luminous object', + dù, 'to mould, cast') [URUDU archaic frequency: 61; concatenates 3 sign variants].

urugal: the netherworld (uru, 'city', + gal, 'big').

urum, uru6, ur7: spawn, fry.

úrum, uru7: relatives, kin.

usan(2): evening (cf., ú-si4 an).

ùsan: whip.

usug: (cf., uzug).

ušar(2,3,4), ušur(2,3,4), usar: (female) companion, neighbor (, 'to support', + ára/ár, 'to praise') [UŠUR3 archaic frequency: 3; concatenates 3 sign variants].

ušbar: weaver.

ušbar(3/7): father-in-law; mother-in-law (gtildeìš/uš, 'man; penis', + bar, 'outside; foreign').

ušera: reed bundle (ú, 'plant', + šár, 'to be many').

(gi)ušub[SI.A/DIRIG]: basket (uš, 'to support, lift', + ub4, 'cavity, hole').

ušum, ušu: n., dragon, composite creature (11, 'snake venom', + am, 'wild ox').

     adj., solitary, alone.

ušumgal: lord of all, sovereign; solitary; monster of composite powers, dragon (ušum, 'dragon', + gal, 'great') [UŠUMGAL archaic frequency: 21].

utah, útu: dried, powdered milk; sky.

uttuku: (cf., gtilde-ka9).

utua(2): breed ram; breed bull (udu, 'sheep', + a, 'semen; father') [UTUA archaic frequency: 74; concatenates 2 sign variants].

utul: (cf., udul).

utul2,7: pot, kettle, cauldron (ú, 'food', + tal, 'large jug').

uzalag, uzalak[GE22]: area measure, = 1/4 of an iku (= 25 sar).

uzug, usug: tithe, tenth-part set aside (hà/u, 'ten', + zag, 'outside of').

uzug2,3,4,5: menstruating woman; woman isolated after birth; person under a taboo (cf., ú-sug4) (úš, 'blood', + zìg, 'to expend, go out').

(gtildeiš)zabalam: juniper (cf., za-ba-lum) [? ZABALAM archaic frequency: 45; concatenates 2 sign variants].

zabar[UD.KA.BAR]: bronze (zil; zi; zé, 'to pare, cut', + bar6, 'bright, white'; Akk. siparrum, 'bronze' borrowed before vowel harmony changed Sumerian word; cf., barzil, 'iron') [ZABAR archaic frequency: 1].

zadim: jeweler; stone cutter (cf., za-dím) [ZADIM archaic frequency: 2].

zalag(2); zal: n., light, brightness; the light before dawn, early morning.

     v., to shine, gleam; to illuminate; to cleanse, purify (often reduplicated).

     adj., bright, luminous, radiant; pure.

zanbur: prowling, roaming; foraging (said of animals).

zibin(2): chrysalis, pupa; caterpillar (zi, 'life', + bun, 'blister').

zilulu[PA.gtildcapIŠGAL]: peddler; vagabond (zil, 'to flay, pare' ?, + lú-ùlu, 'people').

zipah, zapah[ŠU.BAD]: half; a length-measure, span = 1/2 cubit = 15 fingers = 25 cm. (ŠU.BAD: 'open hand' - approx. distance measured by span of outstretched thumb and little finger).

zizna: fish roe; abnormal growths on a fetus.

zugud, zubud: a kind of club; a fish (cf. also, sukud).

zukum: to trample; to walk on; to step on (súg, plural 'to stand', + kum, 'to crush').

zurzub(2), ursub(2), urrub(2): a container provided with teat-shaped protuberances (zur4, 'to spout, flow', + sub, 'to suckle').

Copyright © 1996-1999 John Alan Halloran, Los Angeles, California. All Rights Reserved.
Last modified on August 10, 1999.