Site Links Related to Mesopotamia or Language

Ancient Mesopotamia Sites

ABZU - Mesopotamian Study Resources
Akkadian Language (Babylonian and Assyrian cuneiform texts)
Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative (site at UCLA)
Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative (mirror site in Berlin)
Mesopotamian Year Names
Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary (PSD) project
Home page for the Open Richly Annotated Cuneiform Corpus (ORACC)
The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature, Oxford
Sumerian Lexicon: A Dictionary Guide to the Ancient Sumerian Language
Orientalia 2008 review of the Sumerian Lexicon
Sumerisches Glossar: Bearbeitung von Rechts- und Verwaltungsurkunden (DFG-Projekt), by Walther Sallaberger
Mesopotamian Mathematics
Babylonian Mathematics
History Topics in Babylonian Mathematics
Le calcul sexagésimal en Mésopotamie
MesoCalc: a Mesopotamian Calculator
Babylonian Astronomy/Astrology Software Program
Bibliography of Mesopotamian Astronomy and Astrology
Material Towards a Survey of Ancient Descriptive and Mythological Astronomy, many good articles by Gary D. Thompson
Hope Anthony's Sumerian and Akkadian Star Catalogue, derived from Reiner and Pingree
Hope Anthony's A Guide To Ancient Near Eastern Astronomy, salvaged by the Pomona College Astronomy Dept.
On the Astronomical Records and Babylonian Chronology
Musical Theory in the Ancient World - the Mesopotamian Precursors of Pythagoras
The Invention of Music in the Orientalizing Period
History of Mesopotamian Measures, by Livio C. Stecchini - Introduction, Length, Volume & Weight, Stereometric Texts, and Seeding Rates
Eisenbraun's - Source for Scholarly Books
Dove Booksellers - Historical and Religious Studies
Archaeologia - Booksellers of Used, Out of Print, Antiquarian Books on the Near East
Oriental Institute Bookstore
Oriental Institute on the WWW
Samuel Noah Kramer Institute of Assyriology and Ancient Near Eastern Studies
The American Academic Research Institute in Iraq
Vitas of Ancient Near Eastern Scholars on the Web
Names and Addresses of Scholars and Advanced Students Involved in Cuneiform Studies and Near Eastern Archaeology
E-mail Addresses for Ancient Near Eastern Scholars
Who's Who in Cuneiform Studies - Biographies for Deceased Cuneiform Scholars
Resources for Ancient Near Eastern Studies - bibliographies of publications by Assyriologists
Resources for Ancient Near Eastern Studies - bibliographies in certain subjects, such as Music
Chroniques bibliographiques - compilation critique des publications assyriologiques
Chroniques assyriologiques - Le nouveau site des Chroniques - Néo-sumérien
Internet Researcher: Library Tools for Ancient Near Eastern Research, from Catholic University of America
Gudea Cylinder transcription plates - see the ETCSL for transliterations
CDLI presentation of Sumerian Sign-Lists - from Late Uruk to Ur III
Old Sumerian Signs copied from Labat (Labyrinths - Part4)
Akkadian Cuneiform Signs - with Index to Borger and Labat
A survey of cuneiform signlists
The Diachronic Corpus of Sumerian Literature - appears at this time to be only a catalog with no online texts
Database of Neo-Sumerian Texts (BDTNS)
Sources of Early Akkadian Literature (SEAL): A Text Corpus of Babylonian and Assyrian Literary Texts from the 3rd and 2nd Millennia BCE
Old Babylonian Text Corpus - includes Old Babylonian-English dictionary and a sign list with all variant forms
Late Old Babylonian Personal Names Index (LOB-PNI) - 13,573 names from 1683-1595 B.C.
ARCHIBAB - Archives babyloniennes (XXe-XVIIe siècles av. J.C.)
Ebla Digital Archives
Corpus of Ancient Mesopotamian Scholarship (CAMS), includes astronomy texts such as Mul-Apin 2
Introduction to the Babylonian Language, by Robert M. Whiting
Support page for the CDA - A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian - Addenda, corrigenda, and supporting bibliography - for a newer, but slower-loading version, see this page
Neo-Assyrian Glossary - a reliable Akkadian-English lexicon (the CDA is much more complete, but not on-line)
Akkadian - English - French Dictionary
Descriptive catalog page for The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago (CAD) - the university has now generously made all of the 25 available volumes of this premier Akkadian dictionary downloadable in pdf form
Proceedings of the 51st Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, Held at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, July 18–22, 2005, articles on: 1) Lexicography, Philology, and Textual Studies; 2) Iconography and Art History; and 3) Archaeology and Stratigraphy
Ur Crowd Source: Help us document a 1922-1934 excavation by reading and transcribing letters, field notes, and reports from the dig in southern Iraq
Phillips 13 - tablet with a detailed item inventory from the royal household of King Shulgi of the Ur III dynasty, together with FAQ, glossary, and Ur III map
Dyke College Ur III Texts - photo, transliteration, & translation of 5 receipt tablets
Cuneiform Inscriptions of the University of Minnesota from Ur III Period - 16 Tablets
Babylonian Clay Tablets at South Georgia State Normal College (Valdosta State University) - with research on background of Edgar J. Banks
Cuneiform Tablet Collection of Ripon College, Clark Collection, from Ur III Period - 7 Tablets
Tablets Relating to Sumerian History in the Schoyen Collection
Ashmolean Museum: The Weld-Blundell Prism: The Sumerian King-List
The Sumerian King List, by Thorkild Jacobsen
Sumerian temple records at the Australian Institute of Archaeology
Cuneiform Tablets at the Library of Congress
TEXTOS ELAMITAS: Dirección, transcripciones y traducción
Elam between Assyriology and Iranian Studies - Storia, lingua e cultura dell'antico Elam
Mesopotamian King List 2800 – 500 B.C., 199KB worth of material about each ruler of ancient Mesopotamia
Political Change and Cultural Continuity in Eshnunna from the Ur III to the Old Babylonian Period
Archiv für Orientforschung journal
Journal of Cuneiform Studies Home Page
BASOR - Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research
Journal of Near Eastern Studies
Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Society (JANES) Cumulative Index
IRAQ, the journal of the British Institute for the Study of Iraq
Revue d'assyriologie et d'archéologie orientale
KASKAL, Rivista di Storia, ambienti e culture del Vicino Oriente antico, A Journal of History, Environments, and Cultures of the Ancient Near East
Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und Vorderasiatische Archäologie
Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie
Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale
Origins of Early Writing Systems, conference, October 5 to 7, 2007, Peking University, Beijing
From the 21st Century BC to the 21st Century AD: The Present and Future of Neo-Sumerian Studies - conference, Madrid, July 22-24, 2010
International Association for Assyriology
International Association for Assyriology: cooperation - listings of ongoing projects in Assyriology
Sumerian Mythology FAQ
Sumerian Mythology, by Samuel Noah Kramer, [1944, 1961]
Samuel Noah Kramer biography
Sumerians on the Information Superhighway - magazine article about Steve Tinney's transfer of the Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary (PSD) project to the Internet
Sumerian Myths from a class on World Mythology
Civilization Begins - 224 KB worth of facts and quotes about Sumer and Sumerians, from C. McArver of the Porter-Gaud School
Mesopotamian Religion - Bibliography by Piotr Steinkeller
Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses
Magic and Divination in the Neo-Assyrian Period: A Selected Bibliography by Lorenzo Verderame
The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria by Theophilus G. Pinches (Many Divine Names Are Now Read Differently, But This Detailed 1906 Work Is a Classic)
Ancient Near Eastern Gods Enki and Ea: Diachronical Analysis of Texts and Images from the Earliest Sources to the Neo-Sumerian Period - MA Thesis
The International Database of the Melammu Project - entries investigate the continuity, transformation and diffusion of Mesopotamian culture throughout the ancient world from the second millennium BC until Islamic times
The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project
The Neo-Assyrian Empire - Knowledge and Power
The Babylonian Nineveh Texts, a descriptive database created by Jeanette C. Fincke (2003) as part of The Ashurbanipal Library Project of the British Museum
The Old Assyrian Prosopograpy Database - ca. 34,000 personal name entries drawn from ca. 6,200 texts
Updates to The Prosopography of the Neo-Assyrian Empire
The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon
Ancient Mesopotamian Libraries, a Word document by Amanda K. Sprochi, Resident Music Librarian, Kent State University
Seminar für Altorientalistik - Universitaet Goettingen
KeiBi online, Die Keilschrift-Bibliographie im Netz, Universität Tübingen
Digitale Keilschriftbibliothek Lexikalischer Listen aus Assur
Archives of ANE Discussion List for the Study of the Ancient Near East (Oriental Institute)
ANE 2 - a moderated academic discussion list that focuses on topics and issues of interest in Ancient Near Eastern Studies
Cuneiform Revealed: an introduction to cuneiform script and the Akkadian language
Brown University Seniors 'Crack' Cuneiform Tablets
Historical decipherment of cuneiform, in 1857 the Royal Asiatic Society placed a test case before Edward Hincks, Jules Oppert, Henry Creswicke Rawlinson, and William Henry Fox Talbot
USC's Introduction to Cuneiform Tablets page
InscriptiFact: A Networked Database of Ancient Near Eastern Inscriptions - database of over 30,000 high-resolution images
Animated evolution of cuneiform signs page
Sumerian Tablet, Exercise Tablet, myth about Lugalbanda and Nin-sún
From the Cradle of Civilization: Preservation using Multi-dimensional digitization of Squeeze Impressions in the Ernst Herzfeld papers
Landsberger Archive - Publishing the estate of Benno Landsberger (letters, mss., notes) found at the Institute of Archaeology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Frayne - Scribal Education in Ancient Babylonia
The tablet House: a scribal school in old Babylonian Nippur, by Eleanor Robson
Using sign lists: Labat, Borger, and PSL, by Eleanor Robson, Knowledge and Power site
How to Recognize a Scribal School - Formal Scribal Training - what Sumerian lexical texts did ANE schools utilize?
La Mésopotamie ancienne - Naissance de l'écriture
Écriture cunéiforme
Unwrapping and Visualizing Cuneiform Tablets - successful project at Stanford University to digitize clay tablets
The Digital Classification of Ancient Near Eastern Cuneiform Data (Univ. of Birmingham)
The Cuneiform Digital Palaeography Project (a joint project at the Univ. of Birmingham and the British Museum)
Digital Hammurabi project at Johns Hopkins University
Cuneiform Signs, Lloyd Anderson's studies to support the Unicode encoding of the Cuneiform writing system
n2786.pdf - Final Proposal to Encode Cuneiform Script in Unicode (Adobe pdf document file from June 10, 2004)
Cuneiform Composite font, covers Unicode 5.0, with characters that range from Fara to Neo-Assyrian - created by Steve Tinney with assistance from Michael Everson
Neo-Assyrian version of the Cuneiform Composite font, by Peter Bienstman
Set of 2 TrueType fonts supplying 450 of the most common Sumerian Ur III period cuneiform signs - developed by Guillaume Malingue
A set of 4 TrueType fonts supplying 388 cuneiform signs in which the wedges have a 3 Dimensional appearance - by Carsten Peust (also with a Sumerian Grammar bibliography)
Cuneiform fonts for TeX/LaTeX/PDFLaTeX - by Karel Piska
Fonts developed by the late Bendt Alster for Transliterating Sumerian and Akkadian - not Cuneiform
the late Bendt Alster's updates to his Sumerian Proverbs publications
Publications by A.H. (Bram) Jagersma, including his 749-page dissertation, A descriptive grammar of Sumerian
Home Page of Daniel A. Foxvog, with Introduction to Sumerian Grammar, Elementary Sumerian Glossary, Timeline of Mesopotamian History, and Chief Figures of the Mesopotamian Pantheon
Home Page of Pascal Attinger, with Sumerian literature translations into French and Sumerian grammatical problems
Home Page of Christine Proust, publications on Mesopotamian mathematics, mainly in French
In-Depth Information About Sumer, especially as it relates to the city of Nippur
Nippur, Sacred City of Enlil, Supreme God of Sumer and Akkad, by archaeologist McGuire Gibson
Iraq Site Map - Univ. of Chicago Oriental Institute Map Series
AMAR: Archive of Mesopotamian Archaeological Site Reports
Photographs of Mesopotamian archaeological sites, provided by John C. Sanders & Oriental Institute, University of Chicago
Archaeology Photos, with Images of Archaeological Sites in Mesopotamia (Iraq & Syria), from Peter Langer - Associated Media Group (has 110 photos of Babylon, among other sites)
Aerial views of ancient Uruk, huge, slow-loading page in Arabic
Database project to track archaeological sites in Iraq - funded by the NEH
Seafaring and the Arabian Neolithic - British Archaeological Expedition to Kuwait (BAEK)
Inside a Sumerian Temple: The Ekishnugal at Ur, from The Temple in Time and Eternity, by E. Jan Wilson
Architectural Marvels of Ancient Mesopotamia - informative, but graphics are slow to load
Ships and Shipbuilding in Ancient Mesopotamia (ca. 300-200 B.C.)
Facts on File: Mesopotamian canals and aqueducts
Housing and Plumbing in Mesopotamia
Women in Mesopotamia (Women in World History Curriculum)
The En-hedu-Ana Research Pages - Unearthing the First Known Author
Enheduanna's Writings
The Epic of Gilgamesh
Score transliterations of the Standard Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh, Tablets I-XII, Andrew George, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
Official Site for Gilgamesh, The Motion Picture (the IMDB page has disappeared)
The Metropolitan Museum of Art - The Collection: Ancient Near Eastern Art
Overview of "Treasures of the Royal Tombs of Ur" @ University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
Treasures from the Royal Tombs of Ur, McClung Museum's Special Exhibition
The Morgan Library Collections | Ancient Near Eastern Seals & Tablets
The British Museum, The Middle East
British Museum - Search the British Museum collection database online
Field Museum 'reuniting' scattered collections from ancient Iraq site
Lost Treasures From Iraq, Objects From The Iraq Museum Database, hosted by Oriental Institute, Univ. of Chicago
The Iraq National Museum , historical reconstruction on Polish 'Adam Mickiewicz Institute' site
Antiquities of Mesopotamia at the Vatican Museums
The Centrality of the Date Palm and its Sex Life to Sumerians
Ancient Flowers, Trees, Herbs, Fruits, Vegetables and Shrubs
History of Horticulture - Herbals: The Connection Between Horticulture and Medicine
Bibliography of Archaeobotanical Reports from Iraq and Related Items
Medicinal, Culinary and Aromatic Plants in the Near East
27 University Level Essays on Third Millenium Mesopotamia (University of Manchester, Faculty of Arts)
The Development of Ancient Mesopotamian Law, paper by Dan King
Financing Civilization, book chapter by William N. Goetzmann
Land Markets in the Ancient Near East, by Morris Silver
The Early Evolution of Interest-Bearing Debt, by Michael Hudson
Mesopotamian Worldview Expressions
For six other papers on Ancient Mesopotamian subjects, click for the Fall 2002 class on Race and Ethnicity in Ancient Mesopotamia
Bibliography for the Formation of Early States in the Near East (4,000-2,000BC)
Bibliography for Mesopotamian Urbanism
Bibliography for Mesopotamian Architecture, Construction Materials and Techniques
Archaeology and Architecture of Sumerian Temples, by Ömür Harmansah
Iraqi History Page, by Ali al-Sammawy
Iraq - Ancient Mesopotamia - Sumer, Akkad, Babylon, and Assyria, from Library of Congress country study
Genesis in Sumer - book chapter on Sumerian civilization by Frank E. Smitha
Ethics of Sumer, Babylon, and Hittites by Sanderson Beck
Early Human Communities in Zagros, by Roger Matthews
Anthropologist Mike Shupp Summarizes Archaeological Evidence Relating to Origins of Sumerian Civilization
Anthropologist Mike Shupp Examines Evidence for an Uruk Period Prosperity Zone
School of American Research Advanced Seminar: Mesopotamia in the Era of State Formation - a reliable source covering the fourth millenium Uruk Period
Book Review of Guillermo Algaze, The Uruk World System: The Dynamics of Expansion of Early Mesopotamian Civilization
The Life and Death of the Sumerian Language in Comparative Perspective - Piotr Michalowski
Sumerian Epics, Hymns, and Letters - Piotr Michalowski
The Adaptation of Cuneiform to Akkadian - Piotr Michalowski
Elementary Education at Nippur. The Lists of Trees and Wooden Objects - Niek Veldhuis, all of his publications here
Papers on Ancient Mesopotamia - Ian Lawton
Tracing Assyrian Scholarship, Lecture by Stefan Maul
Ninurta as the God of Wisdom, 2001 paper by Amar Annus
Protohistory in Mesopotamia
The Origins of Writing as a Problem of Historical Epistemology, article by Peter Damerow
Linguistics 201: The Invention of Writing
Numerical notation and abstraction of concepts, Origins of Writing conf. paper by Pettersson
Ancient Mesopotamian Accounting and Human Cognitive Evolution, article by Tom Mouck
Who Began Writing? Many Theories, Few Answers (NY Times Science article)
Accounting with Tokens in the Ancient Near East, article by Denise Schmandt-Besserat
More Articles by Denise Schmandt-Besserat in Table of Contents at 'Ain Ghazal Excavation Reports
Animal Figurines, including Animal symbolism in the ancient Near East (Schmandt-Besserat)
Mesopotamia Life and Teaching Materials
Ancient Mesopotamia: Classroom & Museum Lesson Plans (from the Oriental Institute in Chicago)
Sargon I of Akkad
The Ancient World Web: A very ambitious collection of links
Mythology's Mythinglinks: the Tigris-Euphrates Region of the Ancient Near East - An Annotated & Illustrated Collection of Worldwide Links to Mythologies, Fairy Tales & Folklore, Sacred Arts & Traditions
Gateways To Babylon - Extensive Links
Archaeology on the Internet - a collection of links
All Empires History Forum - an active site for postings on many ancient and language-related topics
Guide to Universities that Teach Sumerian
U.Chi. Dept. of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations
UCLA, Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures
News items about UCLA's Near Eastern Languages and Cultures Dept.
Univ. Of Michigan, Department of Near Eastern Studies
Univ. of Michigan, Near Eastern Studies Library Resources
Near East specialists at Oxford
Yale, Near Eastern Languages & Civilizations, Babylonian Collection
Highlights from the Garshana Collection | Cuneiform Library at Cornell University
Sumerian greeting on Voyager spacecraft record: silim-ma he2-me-en = Welcome! [May you be healthy!]
Translating Elvis into Sumerian
Sumerian - Ural-Altaic Comparisons
Magyar Comparisons - even more ambitious than the preceding link - compares "Afro-Asiatic, Altaic, Austro-Asiatic, Basque, Caucasian, Dravidian, Etruscan, Sino-Tibetan, Sumerian and even some Indo-European links."
LexiLine - Sumerian and Indo-European Similarities A to K - Archaic Baltic Latvian
LexiLine - Sumerian and Indo-European Similarities L to Z - Archaic Baltic Latvian Lithuanian
Austric Relationship of Sumerian Language
About Hungarian and Sumerian
Turkish and Sumerian
Sumerian-Ural-Altaic Affinities, Current Anthropology short article with scholarly responses
Medicine in Ancient Mesopotamia
Mesopotamian Disease and Medicine (CDLI project with bibliography)
History of Mesopotamian Medicine, a collection of links
History of Dentistry - Ancient Mesopotamia
Archaeology of Grains and Beer-Making
The Goddess Ninkasi Hymn as a Guide to Beer-Making
The Beer Archaeologist, Smithsonian Magazine
The Origins and Ancient History of Wine
Commodity Prices in Babylon 385 - 61 BC
Mesopotamian Chronology, and click here for a list of historical chronicles
A Chronology of the Ancient Near East
A Timeline of Climate History around 3000 BC

Language or Research Sites

BL Online - The bibliographical database of linguistics
Numbers in over 5000 Languages
Proto-World and the Language Instinct, by Mark Rosenfelder, investigates and finds that "evidence for the language instinct is weak"
A Brief Introduction to the History of Names
A Bibliography of Semitic Linguistics
Linguistic Exploration - links to on-line language projects and dictionaries
Academy of Ancient Languages
Search the Card Catalog of the New York Public Library
WorldCat, a worldwide library catalog created and maintained collectively by more than 9,000 member institutions
article on Sumerian Language in the Wikipedia free encyclopedia
article that is especially informative about Sumerian grammar in the German version of Wikipedia, based on an article by Ernst Kausen, Die sumerische Sprache
The Yoshikawa Database of Materials for a Sumerian Lexicon - search for a word or word compound and get handwritten references to publications where the word occurs
Lexical Freenet Connected Thesaurus
searchable Lexicon of Linguistics
25th Anniversary Articles chosen by the Editor of the International Journal of Lexicography
The World Atlas of Language Structures Online
CogPrints: Cognitive Sciences EPrint Archive
The sci.lang Newsgroup FAQ
Google Groups - search the contents of the Usenet discussion forums
Ancient Scripts of the World, with Historical Linguistics Links
Ancient Languages and Scripts
How the Alphabet Was Born from Hieroglyphs - article in Biblical Archaeology Review magazine
Ancient Indus Valley Script
Religion Reflected in the Indus Valley Script, Article by Asko Parpola
Dr. Steve Farmer's evidence that the so-called Indus script was not part of a true writing system nor was the Harappan civilization literate
Old Europe 'Writing' Bibliographic Rererences
Proto-Semitic Language and Culture - excellent article by John Huehnergard
web site of the late L.O. Schuman - the 103 Kb salient.pdf essay explores The Semitic Languages and Hamito-Semitic, Salient Features of Renewed Etymology, being an abstract of an unpublished manuscript on Semitic etymology, historical linguistics, and general linguistics
The Early History of Indo-European Languages - by Thomas V. Gamkrelidze and V. V. Ivanov
Examining the Farming/Language Dispersal Hypothesis - edited by Peter Bellwood and Colin Renfrew
Phylogenetic network method puts origin of Proto-Indo-European language at 8100 BC ± 1,900 years
Early Date for the Birth of Indo-European Languages
The Indo-European Etymological Dictionary (IED)
The Ergativic Stage of Early Proto-Indoeuropean
A History of the English Language
A History of the Hindi Language
A History of the Arabic Language
About the Hungarian Language
The Chinese Language and its Development
The Chinese Language: Myths and Facts
Logographic Writing Systems
The best astrology software
Babel's Dawn- A blog about the evolution of speech from primate vocalizations to meaningful exchanges
Historical Linguistics links by the Open Directory Project
Language Origins Society
Evolution of Language - Program of a comprehensive April, 2000 conference
Margaret Magnus's sound symbolism links
Archives of SOUNDSYMBOL List
one-page Hebrew dictionary - of Semitic phememes
The memetic origin of language: modern humans as musical primates
Music and Human Evolution, by Alan R. Harvey
Music Research - music's biological, physiological and psychological status and effect - 2,497 entries
Whistled Speech
Deaf children create new sign language
American Scientist - The Gestural Origins of Language
Gesture Language in Naples - see 4th paragraph in particular
Essays on thinking and language by Yuri Tarnopolsky
Henry Drummond on The Evolution of Language, chapter 5 of The Lowell Lectures on the Ascent of Man, 1904
The real explanation of the FOXP2 "Language Gene", by Alec MacAndrew
Localizing recent adaptive evolution in the human genome
Wave model (linguistics)
Genes and language, by Luigi Luca Cavalli Sforza, Stanford University - a 607 Kb pdf file, but it loads fast
Speaking in Tongues:Theories on the Origins of Language
Knowledge Based Mysticism
Language evolved in a leap - article by Ferrer i Cancho, R. & Solé, R. V. "Least effort and the origins of scaling in human language."
Report on a new computer program that uses language structure, not vocabulary, to analyze the degree of relatedness between languages
Language Evolution and Computation Bibliography
Julian Jaynes Revisited, including summary of Nicholas Humphrey on cave paintings and language
Return to Sumerian language page.
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John A. Halloran
P.O. Box 75713
Los Angeles, CA 90075


Copyright © 2018 John Alan Halloran, Los Angeles, California. All Rights Reserved.
Last modified on August 28, 2018.